Ideas from 'Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy' by Thomas Mautner [1996], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Dictionary of Philosophy' by Mautner,Thomas [Penguin 1997,0-14-051250-0]].

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1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 4. Ordinary Language
Linguistic philosophy approaches problems by attending to actual linguistic usage
1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 5. Against Analysis
Analytic philosophy studies the unimportant, and sharpens tools instead of using them
1. Philosophy / H. Continental Philosophy / 3. Hermeneutics
The 'hermeneutic circle' says parts and wholes are interdependent, and so cannot be interpreted
2. Reason / D. Definition / 4. Real Definition
'Real' definitions give the essential properties of things under a concept
2. Reason / D. Definition / 7. Contextual Definition
'Contextual definitions' replace whole statements, not just expressions
2. Reason / D. Definition / 9. Recursive Definition
Recursive definition defines each instance from a previous instance
2. Reason / D. Definition / 10. Stipulative Definition
A stipulative definition lays down that an expression is to have a certain meaning
2. Reason / D. Definition / 11. Ostensive Definition
Ostensive definitions point to an object which an expression denotes
2. Reason / F. Fallacies / 5. Fallacy of Composition
The fallacy of composition is the assumption that what is true of the parts is true of the whole
4. Formal Logic / E. Nonclassical Logics / 4. Fuzzy Logic
Fuzzy logic is based on the notion that there can be membership of a set to some degree
5. Theory of Logic / B. Logical Consequence / 6. Entailment
Entailment is logical requirement; it may be not(p and not-q), but that has problems
5. Theory of Logic / B. Logical Consequence / 7. Strict Implication
Strict implication says false propositions imply everything, and everything implies true propositions
5. Theory of Logic / B. Logical Consequence / 8. Material Implication
'Material implication' is defined as 'not(p and not-q)', but seems to imply a connection between p and q
A person who 'infers' draws the conclusion, but a person who 'implies' leaves it to the audience
5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 1. Bivalence
Vagueness seems to be inconsistent with the view that every proposition is true or false
5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 1. Quantification
Quantifiers turn an open sentence into one to which a truth-value can be assigned
10. Modality / B. Possibility / 9. Counterfactuals
Counterfactuals are not true, they are merely valid
Maybe counterfactuals are only true if they contain valid inference from premisses
Counterfactuals presuppose a belief (or a fact) that the condition is false
Counterfactuals are true if in every world close to actual where p is the case, q is also the case
Counterfactuals say 'If it had been, or were, p, then it would be q'
10. Modality / C. Sources of Modality / 6. Necessity from Essence
Essentialism is often identified with belief in 'de re' necessary truths
11. Knowledge Aims / B. Certain Knowledge / 4. Fallibilism
Fallibilism is the view that all knowledge-claims are provisional
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 4. Sense Data / a. Sense-data theory
'Sense-data' arrived in 1910, but it denotes ideas in Locke, Berkeley and Hume
14. Science / B. Scientific Theories / 8. Ramsey Sentences
Mental terms can be replaced in a sentence by a variable and an existential quantifier
14. Science / C. Induction / 5. Paradoxes of Induction / a. Grue problem
Observing lots of green x can confirm 'all x are green' or 'all x are grue', where 'grue' is arbitrary
14. Science / C. Induction / 5. Paradoxes of Induction / b. Raven paradox
'All x are y' is equivalent to 'all non-y are non-x', so observing paper is white confirms 'ravens are black'
19. Language / C. Semantics / 6. Indexical Semantics
The references of indexicals ('there', 'now', 'I') depend on the circumstances of utterance
22. Metaethics / C. Sources of Ethics / 2. Human Nature
'Essentialism' is opposed to existentialism, and claims there is a human nature
24. Applied Ethics / A. Decision Conflicts / 6. Double Effect
Double effect is the distinction between what is foreseen and what is intended
Double effect acts need goodness, unintended evil, good not caused by evil, and outweighing