Ideas from 'Propositions' by Trenton Merricks [2015], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Propositions' by Merricks,Trenton [OUP 2015,978-0-19-873256-3]].

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2. Reason / E. Argument / 1. Argument
Arguers often turn the opponent's modus ponens into their own modus tollens
3. Truth / F. Semantic Truth / 2. Semantic Truth
'Snow is white' only contingently expresses the proposition that snow is white
4. Formal Logic / D. Modal Logic ML / 1. Modal Logic
Simple Quantified Modal Logc doesn't work, because the Converse Barcan is a theorem
4. Formal Logic / D. Modal Logic ML / 7. Barcan Formula
The Converse Barcan implies 'everything exists necessarily' is a consequence of 'necessarily, everything exists'
5. Theory of Logic / J. Model Theory in Logic / 1. Logical Models
Sentence logic maps truth values; predicate logic maps objects and sets
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 12. Origin as Essential
In twinning, one person has the same origin as another person
19. Language / B. Meaning / 1. Meaning
I don't accept that if a proposition is directly about an entity, it has a relation to the entity
19. Language / B. Meaning / 6. Meaning as Truth-Conditions
A sentence's truth conditions depend on context
19. Language / E. Propositions / 2. Nature of Propositions
Unity of the proposition questions: what unites them? can the same constituents make different ones?
We want to explain not just what unites the constituents, but what unites them into a proposition
'Cicero is an orator' represents the same situation as 'Tully is an orator', so they are one proposition
The standard view of propositions says they never change their truth-value
Early Russell says a proposition is identical with its truthmaking state of affairs
Propositions are standardly treated as possible worlds, or as structured
Propositions can be 'about' an entity, but that doesn't make the entity a constituent of it
Propositions are necessary existents which essentially (but inexplicably) represent things
True propositions existed prior to their being thought, and might never be thought