Ideas from 'Plato on Parts and Wholes' by Verity Harte [2002], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Plato on Parts and Wholes' by Harte,Verity [OUP 2002,0-19-927844-x]].

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2. Reason / F. Fallacies / 7. Ad Hominem
An ad hominem refutation is reasonable, if it uses the opponent's assumptions
4. Formal Logic / G. Formal Mereology / 1. Mereology
Mereology began as a nominalist revolt against the commitments of set theory
7. Existence / B. Change in Existence / 1. Nature of Change
Traditionally, the four elements are just what persists through change
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 6. Constitution of an Object
Mereology treats constitution as a criterion of identity, as shown in the axiom of extensionality
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / b. Sums of parts
What exactly is a 'sum', and what exactly is 'composition'?
If something is 'more than' the sum of its parts, is the extra thing another part, or not?
The problem with the term 'sum' is that it is singular