Ideas from 'Plato on Parts and Wholes' by Verity Harte [2002], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Plato on Parts and Wholes' by Harte,Verity [OUP 2002,0-19-927844-x]].

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2. Reason / F. Fallacies / 7. Ad Hominem
An ad hominem refutation is reasonable, if it uses the opponent's assumptions
4. Formal Logic / G. Formal Mereology / 1. Mereology
Mereology began as a nominalist revolt against the commitments of set theory
7. Existence / B. Change in Existence / 1. Nature of Change
Traditionally, the four elements are just what persists through change
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 6. Constitution of an Object
Mereology treats constitution as a criterion of identity, as shown in the axiom of extensionality
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / b. Sums of parts
The problem with the term 'sum' is that it is singular
What exactly is a 'sum', and what exactly is 'composition'?
If something is 'more than' the sum of its parts, is the extra thing another part, or not?