Ideas from 'Contemporary Political Philosophy: Intro' by Will Kymlicka [1990], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Contemporary Political Philosophy: an Intro' by Kymlicka,Will [OUP 1992,0-19-827723-7]].

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16. Persons / D. Self as Non-Physical / 4. Kantian Ego
The 'Kantian' self steps back from commitment to its social situation
22. Metaethics / A. Ethical Ends / 1. Value / e. Ultimate value
Teleological theories give the good priority over concern for people
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 3. Promise Keeping
Promises create a new duty to a particular person; they aren't just a strategy to achieve well-being
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / c. Particularism
Maybe the particularist moral thought of women is better than the impartial public thinking of men
23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 1. Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism is not a decision-procedure; choice of the best procedure is an open question
One view says start with equality, and infer equal weight to interests, and hence maximum utility
A second view says start with maximising the good, implying aggregation, and hence equality
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 5. Original Position / c. Difference principle
The difference principles says we must subsidise the costs of other people's choices
25. Society / B. The State / 2. State Legitimacy / d. Social contract
Social contract theories are usually rejected because there never was such a contract
25. Society / B. The State / 9. Population / b. Human population
To maximise utility should we double the population, even if life somewhat deteriorates?
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 2. Social Utilitarianism
The quest of the general good is partly undermined by people's past entitlements
Utilitarianism is no longer a distinctive political position
We shouldn't endorse preferences which reject equality, and show prejudice and selfishness
Using utilitarian principles to make decisions encourages cold detachment from people
Utilitarianism is irrational if it tells you to trade in your rights and resources just for benefits
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 6. Liberalism
Liberalism tends to give priority to basic liberties
Marxists say liberalism is unjust, because it allows exploitation in the sale of labour
Modern liberalism has added personal privacy to our personal social lives
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 8. Communitarianism
Communitarian states only encourage fairly orthodox ideas of the good life
The 'Kantian' view of the self misses the way it is embedded or situated in society
Communitarians say we should pay more attention to our history
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 1. Legal Rights / a. Basis of rights
The Lockean view of freedom depends on whether you had a right to what is restricted
Justice corrects social faults, but also expresses respect to individuals as ends
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 2. Social Freedom / a. Slavery
If everyone owned himself, that would prevent legitimate slavery
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 2. Social Freedom / d. Free market
Libertarians like the free market, but they also think that the free market is just
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 2. Social Freedom / e. Freedom of lifestyle
The most valuable liberties to us need not be the ones with the most freedom
Ancient freedom was free participation in politics, not private independence of life
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 3. Social Equality / b. Political equality
Equal opportunities seems fair, because your fate is from your choices, not your circumstances
Equal opportunity arbitrarily worries about social circumstances, but ignores talents
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 3. Social Equality / c. Legal equality
Marxists say justice is unneeded in the truly good community