Ideas from 'Ontological Relativity' by Willard Quine [1968], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Ontological Relativity and Other Essays' by Quine,Willard [Columbia 1969,0-231-08357-2]].

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7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 8. Criterion for Existence
Absolute ontological questions are meaningless, because the answers are circular definitions
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 10. Ontological Commitment / d. Commitment of theories
Ontology is relative to both a background theory and a translation manual
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 1. Concept of Identity
We know what things are by distinguishing them, so identity is part of ontology
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 5. Language Relativism
Two things are relative - the background theory, and translating the object theory into the background theory
19. Language / C. Reference / 1. Reference theories
Reference is inscrutable, because we cannot choose between theories of numbers
19. Language / F. Communication / 6. Interpreting Language / b. Indeterminate translation
Indeterminacy translating 'rabbit' depends on translating individuation terms