Ideas from 'Introduction - Ontology' by William Lycan [1999], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Mind and Cognition (2nd Edn)' (ed/tr Lycan,William) [Blackwell 1999,0-631-20545-4]].

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7. Existence / C. Structure of Existence / 3. Levels of Reality
Biologists see many organic levels, 'abstract' if seen from below, 'structural' if seen from above
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 6. Identity between Objects
'Lightning is electric discharge' and 'Phosphorus is Venus' are synthetic a posteriori identities
17. Mind and Body / C. Functionalism / 2. Machine Functionalism
Functionalism has three linked levels: physical, functional, and mental
17. Mind and Body / C. Functionalism / 5. Teleological Functionalism
A mental state is a functional realisation of a brain state when it serves the purpose of the organism
26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 2. Natural Purpose
People are trying to explain biological teleology in naturalistic causal terms