Ideas from 'works (fragments)' by Zeno (Citium) [294 BCE], by Theme Structure

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1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 2. Wise People
A wise man's chief strength is not being tricked; nothing is worse than error, frivolity or rashness
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 4. Divisions of Philosophy
Philosophy has three parts, studying nature, character, and rational discourse
3. Truth / H. Deflationary Truth / 3. Minimalist Truth
Someone who says 'it is day' proposes it is day, and it is true if it is day
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 7. Criterion for Existence
Whatever participates in substance exists
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 7. Knowledge First
A grasp by the senses is true, because it leaves nothing out, and so nature endorses it
13. Knowledge Criteria / A. Justification Problems / 1. Justification / c. Defeasibility
If a grasped perception cannot be shaken by argument, it is 'knowledge'
17. Mind and Body / E. Mind as Physical / 5. Causal Argument
A body is required for anything to have causal relations
19. Language / A. Nature of Meaning / 7. Meaning Holism / a. Sentence meaning
A sentence always has signification, but a word by itself never does
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / f. Ultimate value
The goal is to 'live in agreement', according to one rational consistent principle
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / k. Ethics from nature
Zeno said live in agreement with nature, which accords with virtue
Since we are essentially rational animals, living according to reason is living according to nature
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / a. Nature of virtue
Zeno saw virtue as a splendid state, not just a source of splendid action
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / a. Virtues
Zeno says there are four main virtues, which are inseparable but distinct
27. Natural Reality / A. Space-Time / 1. Space / a. Void
There is no void in the cosmos, but indefinite void outside it
27. Natural Reality / G. Cosmology / 1. Cosmology
Since the cosmos produces what is alive and rational, it too must be alive and rational
Things are more perfect if they have reason; nothing is more perfect than the universe, so it must have reason
28. God / C. Proofs of Reason / 1. Ontological Proof
Rational is better than non-rational; the cosmos is supreme, so it is rational
28. God / D. Proofs of Evidence / 2. Teleological Proof
If tuneful flutes grew on olive trees, you would assume the olive had some knowledge of the flute
28. God / E. Attitudes to God / 2. Pantheism
The cosmos and heavens are the substance of god