Ideas from 'The Concept of Law' by H.L.A. Hart [1961], by Theme Structure

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25. Society / C. Social Justice / 4. Legal Rights / a. Basis of rights
Hart (against Bentham) says human rights are what motivate legal rights
                        Full Idea: Whereas Bentham saw rights as a 'child of law', Herbert Hart's view takes the form of seeing human rights as, in effect, 'parents of law'; they motivate specific legislations.
                        From: report of H.L.A. Hart (The Concept of Law [1961]) by Amartya Sen - The Idea of Justice 17 'Ethics'
                        A reaction: [He cites Hart 1955 'Are there any natural rights?'] I agree with Hart. It is clearer if the parents of law are not referred to as 'rights'. You can demand a right, but it is only a right when it is awarded to you.
25. Society / E. State Functions / 1. The Law / a. Legal system
Positive law needs secondary 'rules of recognition' for their correct application
                        Full Idea: Hart says we have secondary legal 'rules of recognition', by which primary positive law is recognised and applied in a regulated manner.
                        From: report of H.L.A. Hart (The Concept of Law [1961]) by Jens Zimmermann - Hermeneutics: a very short introduction 6 'Rules'
                        A reaction: The example of the authority of a particular court is given.
25. Society / E. State Functions / 1. The Law / c. Legal positivism
Hart replaced positivism with the democratic requirement of the people's acceptance
                        Full Idea: Hart replaced Austin's concept of positive law as sovereign command with a more democratic ideal. In modern law-based societies the authority of law depends on the people's acceptance of a law's enduring validity.
                        From: report of H.L.A. Hart (The Concept of Law [1961]) by Jens Zimmermann - Hermeneutics: a very short introduction 6 'Hart'
                        A reaction: Presumably the ancestor of this view is the social contract of Hobbes and Locke.