Ideas from 'Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason' by Sebastian Gardner [1999], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason' by Gardner,Sebastian [Routledge 1999,978-0-415-11909-2]].

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1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 4. Later European Philosophy / c. Eighteenth century philosophy
Hamann, Herder and Jacobi were key opponents of the Enlightenment
                        Full Idea: Hamann, Herder and Jacobi are central figues in the reaction against Enlightenment.
                        From: Sebastian Gardner (Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason [1999], 10 'immediate')
                        A reaction: From a British perspective I would see Hume as the leading such figure. Hamann emphasised the neglect of the role of language. Jacobi was a Christian.
Kant halted rationalism, and forced empiricists to worry about foundations
                        Full Idea: Kant's Critique swiftly brought rationalism to a halt, and after Kant empiricism has displayed a nervousness regarding its foundations, and been forced to assume more sophisticated forms.
                        From: Sebastian Gardner (Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason [1999], 10 Intro)
                        A reaction: See the ideas of Laurence Bonjour for a modern revival of rationalism. After Kant philosophers either went existential, or stared gloomily into the obscure depths. Formal logic was seen as a possible rope ladder down.
1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 3. Metaphysical Systems
Only Kant and Hegel have united nature, morals, politics, aesthetics and religion
                        Full Idea: Apart from Hegel, no later philosophical system equals in stature Kant's attempt to weld together the diverse fields of natural science, morality, politics, aesthetics and religion into a systematic overarching epistemological and metaphysical unity.
                        From: Sebastian Gardner (Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason [1999], 10)
                        A reaction: Earlier candidate are Plato and Aristotle. Earlier Enlightenment figures say little about morality or aesthetics. Hobbes ranges widely. Aquinas covered most things.
2. Reason / E. Argument / 2. Transcendental Argument
Transcendental proofs derive necessities from possibilities (e.g. possibility of experiencing objects)
                        Full Idea: A transcendental proof converts a possibility into a necessity: by saying under what conditions experience of objects is possible, transcendental proofs show those conditions to be necessary for us to the extent that we have any experience of objects.
                        From: Sebastian Gardner (Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason [1999], 02 'Transc')
                        A reaction: They appear to be hypothetical necessities, rather than true metaphysical necessities. Gardner is discussing Kant, but seems to be generalising. Hypothetical necessities are easy: if it is flying, it is necessarily above the ground.
6. Mathematics / A. Nature of Mathematics / 2. Geometry
Modern geoemtry is either 'pure' (and formal), or 'applied' (and a posteriori)
                        Full Idea: There is now 'pure' geometry, consisting of formal systems based on axioms for which truth is not claimed, and which are consequently not synthetic; and 'applied', a branch of physics, the truth of which is empirical, and therefore not a priori.
                        From: Sebastian Gardner (Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason [1999], 03 'Maths')
                        A reaction: His point is that there is no longer any room for a priori geometry. Might the same division be asserted of arithmetic, or analysis, or set theory?
7. Existence / C. Structure of Existence / 6. Fundamentals / c. Monads
Leibnizian monads qualify as Kantian noumena
                        Full Idea: Leibnizian monads clearly satisfy Kant's definition of noumena.
                        From: Sebastian Gardner (Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason [1999], 06 'Noumena')
                        A reaction: This needs qualifying, because Leibniz clearly specifies the main attributes of monads, where Kant is adamant that we can saying virtually nothing about noumena.