Ideas from 'On Certainty' by Ludwig Wittgenstein [1951], by Theme Structure

[found in 'On Certainty' by Wittgenstein,Ludwig (ed/tr Anscombe,E.) [Blackwell 1979,0-631-169407]].

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13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 4. Foundationalism / a. Foundationalism
Foundations need not precede other beliefs
                        Full Idea: I do not explicitly learn the propositions that stand fast for me. I can discover them subsequently like the axis around which a body rotates.
                        From: Ludwig Wittgenstein (On Certainty [1951], 152), quoted by Michael Williams - Problems of Knowledge Ch.14
                        A reaction: A nice metaphor for the way in which axioms are derived. It is also close to Quine's metaphor of the 'net' of understanding, with the centre area 'standing fast'. Not neat and tidy, though.
13. Knowledge Criteria / D. Scepticism / 6. Scepticism Critique
Total doubt can't even get started
                        Full Idea: Wittgenstein remarked that if you tried to doubt everything, you would not get as far as doubting anything.
                        From: report of Ludwig Wittgenstein (On Certainty [1951]) by Michael Williams - Problems of Knowledge Ch.14
19. Language / A. Nature of Meaning / 10. Denial of Meanings
If you are not certain of any fact, you cannot be certain of the meaning of your words either
                        Full Idea: If you are not certain of any fact, you cannot be certain of the meaning of your words either.
                        From: Ludwig Wittgenstein (On Certainty [1951], 114)
                        A reaction: A wonderfully challenging aphorism. I suspect that it is true, but not really a problem. We all know the meaning of 'Loch Ness Monster', as long as we don't get too fussy. And for local objects I am happy that I know the facts.