Ideas from 'fragments/reports' by Diogenes (Bab) [180 BCE], by Theme Structure

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22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / a. Form of the Good
The good is what is perfect by nature
                        Full Idea: Diogenes of Babylon defined the good as what is perfect by nature.
                        From: report of Diogenes (Bab) (fragments/reports [c.180 BCE]) by D.L. Blank - Diogenes of Babylon
                        A reaction: This might come close to G.E. Moore's Ideal Utilitarianism, but its dependence on the rather uneasy of concept of 'perfection' makes it questionable. Personally I find it appealing. I wish we had Diogenes' explanation.
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / k. Ethics from nature
The goal is rationality in the selection of things according to nature
                        Full Idea: Diogenes of Babylon defined the goal to be rationality in the selection and rejection of the things according to nature.
                        From: report of Diogenes (Bab) (fragments/reports [c.180 BCE]) by D.L. Blank - Diogenes of Babylon
                        A reaction: This captures the central Stoic idea quite nicely. 'Live according to nature', but this always meant 'live according to reason', because that is (as Aristotle had taught) the essence of our nature. This only makes sense if reason and nature coincide.
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / c. Justice
Justice is a disposition to distribute according to desert
                        Full Idea: Diogenes of Babylon defined justice as the disposition which distributes to everyone what he deserves.
                        From: report of Diogenes (Bab) (fragments/reports [c.180 BCE]) by D.L. Blank - Diogenes of Babylon
                        A reaction: The questions that arise would be 'what does a new-born baby deserve?', and 'what do animals deserve?', and 'does the lowest and worst of criminals deserve anything at all?'