Ideas from 'fragments/reports' by Hecato [70 BCE], by Theme Structure

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23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / a. Virtues
The cardinal virtues are theoretical (based on knowledge), and others are 'non-theoretical'
                        Full Idea: Hecato defined the cardinal virtues as 'theoretical', that is, based on knowledge, and to these he opposed those that are 'non-theoretical', for example, health, beauty, strength of spirit, and courage.
                        From: report of Hecato (fragments/reports [c.70 BCE]) by Tiziano Dorandi - Hecato of Rhodes
                        A reaction: Mostly these are Aristotle's external and non-external virtues, except that courage is here included among the former, implying, presumably, that it is more of a natural gift than an intellectual achievement.