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832 1. Philosophy
A. Wisdom
42 1. Nature of Wisdom
23 2. Wise People
B. History of Ideas
10 1. History of Ideas
5 2. Ancient Thought
77 3. Greek-English Lexicon
6 4. Early European Thought
10 5. Later European Thought
2 6. Twentieth Century Thought
C. History of Philosophy
7 1. History of Philosophy
42 2. Ancient Philosophy a. Ancient chronology
4 b. Pre-Socratic philosophy
4 c. Classical philosophy
16 3. Earlier European Philosophy a. Earlier European chronology
3 b. Early medieval philosophy
3 c. Later medieval philosophy
3 d. Renaissance philosophy
27 4. Later European Philosophy a. Later European chronology
6 b. Seventeenth century philosophy
3 c. Eighteenth century philosophy
3 d. Nineteenth century philosophy
33 5. Modern Philosophy a. Modern philosophy chronology
2 b. Modern philosophy beginnings
2 c. Modern philosophy mid-period
1 d. Contemporary philosophy
D. Nature of Philosophy
26 1. Philosophy
19 2. Invocation to Philosophy
25 3. Philosophy Defined
20 4. Aims of Philosophy a. Philosophy as worldly
11 b. Philosophy as transcendent
6 c. Philosophy as generalisation
9 d. Philosophy as puzzles
12 e. Philosophy as reason
11 5. Hopes for Philosophy
40 6. Despair over Philosophy
13 7. Humour
E. Nature of Metaphysics
28 1. Nature of Metaphysics
16 2. Possibility of Metaphysics
19 3. Metaphysics as Science
18 4. Metaphysics beyond Science
18 5. Metaphysics as Conceptual
14 6. Against Metaphysics
F. Analytic Philosophy
41 1. Analysis
21 2. Conceptual Analysis
5 3. Necessary/Sufficient Conditions
18 4. Ordinary Language
23 5. Against Analysis
G. Scientific Philosophy
12 1. Aims of Science
8 2. Positivism
28 3. Scientism
H. Continental Philosophy
14 1. Continental Philosophy
7 2. Phenomenology
5 3. Hermeneutics
2 4. Linguistic Structuralism
3 5. Critical Theory
6 6. Deconstruction

524 2. Reason
A. Nature of Reason
29 1. On Reason
15 2. Logos
11 3. Pure Reason
24 4. Aims of Reason
13 5. Objectivity
24 6. Coherence
15 7. Status of Reason
6 8. Naturalising Reason
23 9. Limits of Reason
B. Laws of Thought
9 1. Laws of Thought
20 2. Sufficient Reason
18 3. Non-Contradiction
8 4. Contraries
5 5. Opposites
23 6. Ockham's Razor
C. Styles of Reason
27 1. Dialectic
6 2. Elenchus
6 3. Eristic
D. Definition
17 1. Definitions
19 2. Aims of Definition
11 3. Types of Definition
25 4. Real Definition
23 5. Genus and Differentia
14 6. Definition by Essence
13 7. Contextual Definition
7 8. Impredicative Definition
1 9. Recursive Definition
4 10. Stipulative Definition
5 11. Ostensive Definition
9 12. Against Definition
E. Argument
8 1. Argument
2 2. Transcendental Argument
8 3. Analogy
1 4. Open Question
1 5. Reductio ad Absurdum
8 6. Conclusive Proof
5 7. Thought Experiments
F. Fallacies
7 1. Fallacy
3 2. Infinite Regress
2 3. Question Begging
8 4. Circularity
4 5. Fallacy of Composition
1 6. Fallacy of Division
4 7. Ad Hominem
10 8. Category Mistake a. Category mistakes
5 b. Category mistake as syntactic
11 c. Category mistake as semantic
5 d. Category mistake as pragmatic
1 e. Category mistake as ontological

562 3. Truth
A. Truth Problems
27 1. Truth
25 2. Defining Truth
13 3. Value of Truth
7 4. Uses of Truth
23 5. Truth Bearers
7 6. Verisimilitude
5 7. Falsehood
12 8. Subjective Truth
9 9. Rejecting Truth
B. Truthmakers
8 1. For Truthmakers
11 2. Truthmaker Relation
9 3. Truthmaker Maximalism
11 4. Truthmaker Necessitarianism
21 5. What Makes Truths a. What makes truths
8 b. Objects make truths
4 c. States of affairs make truths
7 d. Being makes truths
9 6. Making Negative Truths
10 7. Making Modal Truths
3 8. Making General Truths
6 9. Making Past Truths
2 10. Making Future Truths
11 11. Truthmaking and Correspondence
16 12. Rejecting Truthmakers
C. Correspondence Truth
32 1. Correspondence Truth
11 2. Correspondence to Facts
25 3. Correspondence Truth critique
D. Coherence Truth
22 1. Coherence Truth
8 2. Coherence Truth Critique
E. Pragmatic Truth
21 1. Pragmatic Truth
F. Semantic Truth
26 1. Tarski's Truth a. Tarski's truth definition
18 b. Satisfaction and truth
7 c. Meta-language for truth
35 2. Semantic Truth
G. Axiomatic Truth
34 1. Axiomatic Truth
3 2. FS Truth Axioms
6 3. KF Truth Axioms
H. Deflationary Truth
12 1. Redundant Truth
31 2. Deflationary Truth
7 3. Minimalist Truth

761 4. Formal Logic
A. Syllogistic Logic
11 1. Aristotelian Logic
13 2. Syllogistic Logic
5 3. Term Logic
B. Propositional Logic PL
12 1. Propositional Logic
9 2. Tools of Propositional Logic a. Symbols of PL
16 b. Terminology of PL
14 c. Derivation rules of PL
18 d. Basic theorems of PL
16 e. Axioms of PL
9 3. Truth Tables
2 4. Soundness of PL
1 5. Completeness of PL
C. Predicate Calculus PC
2 1. Predicate Calculus PC
4 2. Tools of Predicate Calculus a. Symbols of PC
1 b. Terminology of PC
6 c. Derivations rules of PC
4 d. Universal quantifier ∀
4 e. Existential quantifier ∃
1 3. Completeness of PC
D. Modal Logic ML
18 1. Modal Logic
4 2. Tools of Modal Logic a. Symbols of ML
6 b. Terminology of ML
15 c. Derivation rules of ML
6 3. Modal Logic Systems a. Systems of modal logic
2 b. System K
6 c. System D
4 d. System T
1 e. System K4
5 f. System B
7 g. System S4
18 h. System S5
11 4. Alethic Modal Logic
3 5. Epistemic Logic
3 6. Temporal Logic
25 7. Barcan Formula
E. Nonclassical Logics
2 1. Nonclassical Logics
15 2. Intuitionist Logic
6 3. Many-Valued Logic
4 4. Fuzzy Logic
8 5. Relevant Logic
8 6. Free Logic
5 7. Paraconsistency
3 8. Intensional Logic
1 9. Awareness Logic
1 10. Justification Logics
1 11. Dynamic Logics
6 12. Non-Monotonic Logic
F. Set Theory ST
30 1. Set Theory
19 2. Mechanics of Set Theory a. Symbols of ST
40 b. Terminology of ST
4 c. Basic theorems of ST
4 3. Types of Set a. Types of set
29 b. Empty (Null) Set
12 c. Unit (Singleton) Set
10 d. Infinite Sets
7 e. Equivalence classes
33 4. Axioms for Sets a. Axioms for sets
9 b. Axiom of Extensionality I
5 c. Axiom of Pairing II
3 d. Axiom of Unions III
1 e. Axiom of the Empty Set IV
12 f. Axiom of Infinity V
5 g. Axiom of Powers VI
5 h. Axiom of Replacement VII
6 i. Axiom of Foundation VIII
34 j. Axiom of Choice IX
2 k. Axiom of Existence
2 l. Axiom of Specification
3 m. Axiom of Separation
3 n. Axiom of Comprehension
6 o. Axiom of Constructibility V = L
6 p. Axiom of Reducibility
8 5. Conceptions of Set a. Sets as existing
1 b. Combinatorial sets
5 c. Logical sets
6 d. Na´ve logical sets
14 e. Iterative sets
7 f. Limitation of Size
10 6. Ordering in Sets
9 7. Natural Sets
23 8. Critique of Set Theory
G. Formal Mereology
23 1. Mereology
11 2. Terminology of Mereology
9 3. Axioms of Mereology
3 4. Groups

1154 5. Theory of Logic
A. Overview of Logic
33 1. Overview of Logic
15 2. History of Logic
20 3. Value of Logic
17 4. Pure Logic
18 5. First-Order Logic
26 6. Classical Logic
32 7. Second-Order Logic
8 8. Logic of Mathematics
2 9. Philosophical Logic
B. Logical Consequence
27 1. Logical Consequence
6 2. Types of Consequence
6 3. Deductive Consequence |-
15 4. Semantic Consequence |=
8 5. Modus Ponens
2 6. Entailment
5 7. Strict Implication
7 8. Material Implication
C. Ontology of Logic
16 1. Ontology of Logic
5 2. Platonism in Logic
10 3. If-Thenism
7 4. Logic by Convention
D. Assumptions for Logic
13 1. Bivalence
24 2. Excluded Middle
4 3. Contradiction
16 4. Identity in Logic
E. Structures of Logic
35 1. Logical Form
27 2. Logical Connectives a. Logical connectives
3 b. Basic connectives
8 c. not
6 d. and
7 e. or
2 3. Constants in Logic
19 4. Variables in Logic
12 5. Functions in Logic
9 6. Relations in Logic
6 7. Predicates in Logic
9 8. Theories in Logic
F. Referring in Logic
30 1. Naming a. Names
31 b. Names as descriptive
20 c. Names as referential
15 d. Singular terms
13 e. Empty names
6 f. Names eliminated
4 2. Descriptions a. Descriptions
21 b. Definite descriptions
22 c. Theory of definite descriptions
5 3. Property (λ-) Abstraction
G. Quantification
21 1. Quantification
16 2. Domain of Quantification
9 3. Objectual Quantification
22 4. Substitutional Quantification
11 5. Second-Order Quantification
25 6. Plural Quantification
9 7. Unorthodox Quantification
H. Proof Systems
4 1. Proof Systems
6 2. Axiomatic Proof
7 3. Proof from Assumptions
13 4. Natural Deduction
8 5. Tableau Proof
5 6. Sequent Calculi
I. Semantics of Logic
21 1. Semantics of Logic
6 2. Formal Truth
20 3. Logical Truth
2 4. Tautological Truth
12 5. Satisfaction
4 6. Extensionalism
4 7. Intensionalism
J. Model Theory in Logic
34 1. Logical Models
13 2. Isomorphisms
24 3. L÷wenheim-Skolem Theorems
K. Features of Logics
30 1. Axiomatisation
10 2. Consistency
12 3. Soundness
14 4. Completeness
10 5. Incompleteness
17 6. Compactness
7 7. Decidability
10 8. Enumerability
2 9. Expressibility
6 10. Monotonicity
L. Paradox
5 1. Paradox
20 2. Aporiai
7 3. Antinomies
6 4. Paradoxes in Logic a. Achilles paradox
1 b. K÷nig's paradox
4 c. Berry's paradox
1 d. Richard's paradox
2 e. The Lottery paradox
4 5. Paradoxes in Set Theory a. Set theory paradoxes
1 b. Cantor's paradox
4 c. Burali-Forti's paradox
5 d. Russell's paradox
2 e. Mirimanoff's paradox
16 6. Paradoxes in Language a. The Liar paradox
5 b. The Heap paradox ('Sorites')
2 c. Grelling's paradox
1 d. The Preface paradox
2 7. Paradoxes of Time

1134 6. Mathematics
A. Nature of Mathematics
30 1. Mathematics
4 2. Quantity
23 3. Numbers a. Numbers
25 b. Types of number
19 c. Priority of numbers
6 d. Natural numbers
29 e. Ordinal numbers
8 f. Cardinal numbers
28 g. Real numbers
5 h. Reals from Cauchy
11 i. Reals from cuts
2 j. Complex numbers
1 k. Imaginary numbers
7 l. Zero
7 m. One
2 n. Pi
20 o. Units
48 p. Counting
8 q. Arithmetic
26 4. The Infinite a. The Infinite
3 b. Mark of the infinite
4 c. Potential infinite
11 d. Actual infinite
1 e. Countable infinity
5 f. Uncountable infinities
15 g. Continuum Hypothesis
8 h. Ordinal infinity
5 i. Cardinal infinity
5 j. Large cardinals
5 k. Infinite divisibility
8 l. Infinitesimals
5 m. Limits
30 5. Geometry
7 6. Proof in Mathematics
9 7. Application of Mathematics
B. Foundations for Mathematics
14 1. Foundations for Mathematics
20 2. Axioms for Geometry
19 3. Axioms for Number a. Axioms for numbers
2 b. Baby arithmetic
2 c. Robinson arithmetic
25 d. Peano arithmetic
9 e. Peano arithmetic 2nd-order
10 f. Mathematical induction
20 g. Incompleteness of Arithmetic
3 4. Definitions of Number a. Defining numbers
10 b. Greek arithmetic
45 c. Fregean numbers
18 d. Hume's Principle
13 e. Caesar problem
3 f. Zermelo numbers
4 g. Von Neumann numbers
36 5. Mathematics as Set Theory a. Mathematics is set theory
13 b. Mathematics is not set theory
33 6. Mathematical Structuralism a. Structuralism
11 b. Varieties of structuralism
13 c. Nominalist structuralism
12 d. Platonist structuralism
23 e. Structuralism critique
C. Sources of Mathematics
33 1. Mathematical Platonism a. For mathematical platonism
21 b. Against mathematical platonism
11 2. Intuition of Mathematics
5 3. Mathematical Nominalism
36 4. Mathematical Empiricism a. Mathematical empiricism
17 b. Indispensability of mathematics
18 c. Against mathematical empiricism
14 5. Numbers as Adjectival
31 6. Logicism a. Early logicism
15 b. Type theory
13 c. Neo-logicism
36 d. Logicism critique
20 7. Formalism
5 8. Finitism
10 9. Fictional Mathematics
16 10. Constructivism a. Constructivism
18 b. Intuitionism
8 c. Conceptualism
16 d. Predicativism
3 e. Psychologism

913 7. Existence
A. Nature of Existence
30 1. Nature of Existence
17 2. Types of Existence
16 3. Being a. Nature of Being
4 b. Being and existence
5 c. Becoming
20 d. Non-being
6 e. Being and nothing
7 f. Primary being
14 g. Particular being
9 h. Dasein (being human)
4 i. Deflating being
24 4. Existence as One
3 5. The Absolute
13 6. Abstract Existence
18 7. Reason for Existence
33 8. Criterion for Existence
B. Change in Existence
27 1. Nature of Change
16 2. Processes
4 3. Moments
17 4. Events a. Nature of events
10 b. Events as primitive
18 c. Reduction of events
C. Structure of Existence
22 1. Grounding a. Nature of grounding
8 b. Relata of grounding
8 c. Grounding and explanation
2 d. Grounding and reduction
23 2. Reduction
6 3. Levels of Reality
16 4. Ontological Dependence
14 5. Supervenience a. Nature of supervenience
9 b. Types of supervenience
22 c. Significance of supervenience
8 d. Humean supervenience
3 6. Fundamentals a. Fundamental reality
2 b. Types of fundamental
21 c. Monads
13 d. Logical atoms
25 7. Abstract/Concrete a. Abstract/concrete
6 b. Levels of abstraction
17 8. Stuff a. Pure stuff
7 b. Mixtures
D. Theories of Reality
29 1. Realism
21 2. Reality
29 3. Anti-realism
4 4. Naturalism
19 5. Physicalism
12 6. Fictionalism
18 7. Facts a. Facts
11 b. Types of fact
5 c. Facts and truths
3 d. Facts rejected
8 8. States of Affairs
12 9. Vagueness a. Vagueness of reality
9 b. Vagueness as epistemic
15 c. Vagueness as semantic
6 d. Vagueness, degrees of
21 e. Supervaluation for vagueness
21 10. Ontological Commitment a. Ontological commitment
9 b. Commitment of quantifiers
5 c. Commitment of predicates
11 d. Commitment of theories
18 e. Ontological commitment problems
E. Categories
17 1. Categories
16 2. Categorisation
23 3. Proposed Categories
9 4. Category Realism
15 5. Category Anti-Realism

820 8. Modes of Existence
A. Relations
23 1. Nature of Relations
9 2. Internal Relations
4 3. Structural Relations
11 4. Formal Relations a. Types of relation
2 b. Equivalence relation
3 c. Ancestral relation
B. Properties
32 1. Nature of Properties
9 2. Need for Properties
15 3. Types of Properties
18 4. Intrinsic Properties
30 5. Natural Properties
29 6. Categorical Properties
14 7. Emergent Properties
17 8. Properties as Modes
4 9. Qualities
30 10. Properties as Predicates
20 11. Properties as Sets
18 12. Denial of Properties
36 13. Tropes a. Nature of tropes
22 b. Critique of tropes
C. Powers and Dispositions
30 1. Powers
34 2. Powers as Basic
22 3. Powers as Derived
22 4. Powers as Essence
26 5. Powers and Properties
18 6. Dispositions a. Dispositions
11 b. Dispositions and powers
12 c. Dispositions as conditional
10 d. Dispositions as occurrent
5 e. Dispositions as potential
18 7. Against Powers
D. Universals
38 1. Universals
22 2. Need for Universals
12 3. Instantiated Universals
12 4. Uninstantiated Universals
5 5. Universals as Concepts
25 6. Platonic Forms a. Platonic Forms
21 b. Partaking
6 c. Self-predication
21 d. Forms critiques
E. Nominalism
16 1. Nominalism a. Nominalism
15 b. Nominalism about universals
9 c. Nominalism about abstracta
24 2. Resemblance Nominalism
13 3. Predicate Nominalism
6 4. Concept Nominalism
16 5. Class Nominalism
5 6. Mereological Nominalism

1464 9. Objects
A. Existence of Objects
32 1. Physical Objects
16 2. Abstract Objects a. Nature of abstracta
5 b. Need for abstracta
17 c. Modern abstracta
7 d. Problems with abstracta
13 3. Objects in Thought
38 4. Individuation a. Individuation
11 b. Individuation by properties
12 c. Individuation by location
20 d. Individuation by haecceity
40 e. Individuation by kind
7 5. Simples
30 6. Nihilism about Objects
B. Unity of Objects
22 1. Unifying an Object a. Intrinsic unification
18 b. Unifying aggregates
10 c. Unity as conceptual
38 2. Substance a. Substance
6 b. Need for substance
20 c. Types of substance
34 d. Substance defined
20 e. Substance critique
3 3. Unity Problems a. Scattered objects
8 b. Cat and its tail
38 c. Statue and clay
10 d. Coincident objects
28 e. Vague objects
C. Structure of Objects
15 1. Structure of an Object
28 2. Hylomorphism a. Hylomorphism
8 b. Form as principle
8 c. Form as causal
11 d. Form as unifier
13 3. Matter of an Object
9 4. Quantity of an Object
23 5. Composition of an Object
21 6. Constitution of an Object
22 7. Substratum
27 8. Parts of Objects a. Parts of objects
21 b. Sums of parts
40 c. Wholes from parts
D. Essence of Objects
26 1. Essences of Objects
16 2. Types of Essence
38 3. Individual Essences
20 4. Essence as Definition
26 5. Essence as Kind
25 6. Essence as Unifier
21 7. Essence and Necessity a. Essence as necessary properties
22 b. Essence not necessities
9 c. Essentials are necessary
21 8. Essence as Explanatory
31 9. Essence and Properties
18 10. Essence as Species
11 11. Essence of Artefacts
7 12. Essential Parts
29 13. Nominal Essence
19 14. Knowledge of Essences
34 15. Against Essentialism
E. Objects over Time
13 1. Objects over Time
18 2. Objects that Change
12 3. Three-Dimensionalism
22 4. Four-Dimensionalism
21 5. Temporal Parts
10 6. Successive Things
7 7. Intermittent Objects
8 8. Continuity of Rivers
18 9. Ship of Theseus
9 10. Beginning of an Object
3 11. End of an Object
21 12. Origin as Essential
8 13. No Identity over Time
F. Identity among Objects
25 1. Concept of Identity
13 2. Defining Identity
18 3. Relative Identity
11 4. Type Identity
21 5. Self-Identity
19 6. Identity between Objects
39 7. Indiscernible Objects
18 8. Leibniz's Law
8 9. Sameness

760 10. Modality
A. Necessity
8 1. Types of Modality
22 2. Nature of Necessity
24 3. Types of Necessity
14 4. De re / De dicto modality
29 5. Metaphysical Necessity
39 6. Logical Necessity
19 7. Natural Necessity
6 8. Transcendental Necessity
1 9. Normative Necessity
6 10. Impossibility
19 11. Denial of Necessity
B. Possibility
34 1. Possibility
3 2. Epistemic possibility
4 3. Combinatorial possibility
12 4. Potentiality
9 5. Contingency
14 6. Probability
9 7. Chance
11 8. Conditionals a. Conditionals
6 b. Types of conditional
23 c. Truth-function conditionals
15 d. Non-truthfunction conditionals
5 e. Supposition conditionals
6 f. Pragmatics of conditionals
21 9. Counterfactuals
C. Sources of Modality
29 1. Sources of Necessity
3 2. Necessity as Primitive
11 3. Necessity by Convention
11 4. Necessity from Concepts
15 5. Modality from Actuality
16 6. Necessity from Essence
D. Knowledge of Modality
19 1. A Priori Necessary
5 2. A Priori Contingent
10 3. A Posteriori Necessary
22 4. Conceivable as Possible a. Conceivable as possible
10 b. Conceivable but impossible
6 c. Possible but inconceivable
E. Possible worlds
31 1. Possible Worlds a. Possible worlds
8 b. Impossible worlds
13 c. Possible worlds realism
13 d. Possible worlds actualism
26 e. Against possible worlds
30 2. Nature of Possible Worlds a. Nature of possible worlds
8 b. Worlds as fictions
7 c. Worlds as propositions
30 3. Transworld Objects a. Transworld identity
22 b. Rigid designation
31 c. Counterparts
16 d. Haecceitism
9 e. Possible Objects

383 11. Knowledge Aims
A. Knowledge
33 1. Knowledge
39 2. Understanding
4 3. Value of Knowledge
27 4. Belief a. Beliefs
10 b. Elements of beliefs
25 c. Aim of beliefs
12 d. Cause of beliefs
8 e. Belief holism
4 f. Animal beliefs
5 5. Aiming at Truth
7 6. Knowing How
9 7. Knowledge First
B. Certain Knowledge
25 1. Certainty
7 2. Common Sense Certainty
6 3. Error
12 4. Fallibilism
25 5. The Cogito
31 6. Cogito Critique
C. Knowing Reality
5 1. Perceptual Realism a. Na´ve realism
13 b. Direct realism
8 c. Representative realism
28 2. Phenomenalism
35 3. Idealism
5 4. Solipsism

600 12. Knowledge Sources
A. A Priori Knowledge
17 1. Nature of the A Priori
15 2. Self-Evidence
13 3. Innate Knowledge a. Innate knowledge
6 b. Recollection doctrine
7 c. Tabula rasa
18 4. A Priori as Necessities
21 5. A Priori Synthetic
7 6. A Priori from Reason
6 7. A Priori from Convention
19 8. A Priori as Analytic
15 9. A Priori from Concepts
7 10. A Priori as Subjective
8 11. Denying the A Priori
B. Perception
30 1. Perception
8 2. Qualities in Perception a. Qualities in perception
11 b. Primary/secondary
17 c. Primary qualities
26 d. Secondary qualities
17 e. Primary/secondary critique
20 3. Representation
23 4. Sense Data a. Sense-data theory
16 b. Nature of sense-data
3 c. Unperceived sense-data
18 d. Sense-data problems
20 5. Interpretation
18 6. Inference in Perception
10 7. Causal Perception
12 8. Adverbial Theory
C. Rationalism
37 1. Rationalism
D. Empiricism
36 1. Empiricism
15 2. Associationism
8 3. Pragmatism
18 4. Pro-Empiricism
34 5. Empiricism Critique
E. Direct Knowledge
22 1. Intuition
3 2. Inspiration
19 3. Memory

571 13. Knowledge Criteria
A. Justification Problems
13 1. Justification a. Justification issues
11 b. Need for justification
7 c. Defeasibility
10 2. Justification Challenges a. Agrippa's trilemma
13 b. Gettier problem
16 c. Knowledge closure
23 3. Internal or External a. Pro-internalism
5 b. Pro-externalism
3 c. Disjunctivism
B. Internal Justification
8 1. Epistemic virtues
8 2. Pragmatic justification
16 3. Evidentialism a. Evidence
9 b. Evidentialism
16 4. Foundationalism a. Foundationalism
13 b. Basic beliefs
11 c. Empirical foundations
7 d. Rational foundations
6 e. Pro-foundations
19 f. Foundationalism critique
22 5. Coherentism a. Coherence as justification
8 b. Pro-coherentism
17 c. Coherentism critique
C. External Justification
20 1. External Justification
14 2. Causal Justification
12 3. Reliabilism a. Reliable knowledge
13 b. Anti-reliabilism
3 4. Tracking the Facts
5 5. Controlling Beliefs
18 6. Contextual Justification a. Contextualism
10 b. Invariantism
13 7. Testimony
9 8. Social Justification
6 9. Naturalised Epistemology
7 10. Anti External Justification
D. Scepticism
32 1. Scepticism
7 2. Types of Scepticism
17 3. Illusion Scepticism
3 4. Demon Scepticism
6 5. Dream Scepticism
25 6. Scepticism Critique
E. Relativism
28 1. Relativism
4 2. Knowledge as Convention
21 3. Subjectivism
12 4. Cultural relativism
7 5. Language Relativism
18 6. Relativism Critique

618 14. Science
A. Basis of Science
7 1. Observation
22 2. Demonstration
11 3. Experiment
17 4. Prediction
6 5. Anomalies
13 6. Falsification
B. Scientific Theories
30 1. Scientific Theory
13 2. Aim of Science
12 3. Instrumentalism
3 4. Paradigm
8 5. Commensurability
4 6. Theory Holism
7 7. Scientific Models
8 8. Ramsey Sentences
C. Induction
25 1. Induction
13 2. Aims of Induction
31 3. Limits of Induction
12 4. Reason in Induction
20 5. Paradoxes of Induction a. Grue problem
16 b. Raven paradox
16 6. Bayes's Theorem
D. Explanation
17 1. Explanation a. Explanation
25 b. Aims of explanation
6 c. Direction of explanation
3 d. Explaining people
31 2. Types of Explanation a. Types of explanation
4 b. Contrastive explanations
14 c. Explanations by coherence
35 d. Lawlike explanations
5 e. Necessity in explanations
30 f. Causal explanations
4 g. Explanations by function
32 h. Explanations by mechanism
12 i. Explanations by reduction
34 j. Explanations by essence
7 k. Probabilistic explanations
5 l. Explanation by proof
27 3. Best Explanation a. Best explanation
12 b. Ultimate explanation
10 c. Against best explanation
9 4. Explanation Doubts a. Explanation as pragmatic
2 b. Rejecting explanation

460 15. Nature of Minds
A. Nature of Mind
7 1. Mind a. Mind
6 b. Purpose of mind
11 c. Features of mind
8 d. Location of mind
10 e. Questions about mind
22 2. PsuchÚ
12 3. Mental Causation
2 4. Other Minds a. Other minds
6 b. Scepticism of other minds
17 c. Knowing other minds
12 d. Other minds by analogy
21 5. Unity of Mind
10 6. Anti-Individualism
10 7. Animal Minds
7 8. Brain
B. Features of Minds
18 1. Consciousness a. Consciousness
8 b. Essence of consciousness
6 c. Parts of consciousness
12 d. Purpose of consciousness
16 e. Cause of consciousness
15 f. Higher-order thought
13 2. Unconscious Mind
9 3. Privacy
17 4. Intentionality a. Nature of intentionality
23 b. Intentionality theories
17 5. Qualia a. Nature of qualia
12 b. Qualia and intentionality
13 c. Explaining qualia
8 6. Inverted Qualia
6 7. Blindsight
C. Capacities of Minds
6 1. Faculties
10 2. Imagination
26 3. Abstraction by mind
5 4. Objectification
30 5. Generalisation by mind
7 6. Idealisation
13 7. Seeing Resemblance
3 8. Remembering Contiguity
6 9. Perceiving Causation

387 16. Persons
A. Concept of a Person
11 1. Existence of Persons
5 2. Persons as Responsible
4 3. Persons as Reasoners
3 4. Persons as Animals
B. Concept of the Self
11 1. Essential Self
7 2. Internal Properties
10 3. External Properties
3 4. Ethical Self
14 5. Persistence of Self
25 6. Denial of the Self
C. Self-Awareness
26 1. Introspection
21 2. Self-Knowledge
15 3. Undetectable Self
D. Self and Body
4 1. Spiritual Self
4 2. A Priori Self
9 3. Cartesian Ego
8 4. Kantian Ego
12 5. Role of the Body
2 6. Brain as the Self
E. Self as Mind
17 1. Self and Memory
17 2. Psychological Continuity
12 3. Psychological Self critique
17 4. Associated Self
4 5. Split Consciousness
7 6. Self as Meta-awareness
F. Free Will
33 1. Free Will a. Nature of free will
14 b. Pro-free will
28 c. Free will critique
9 2. Free Will Theories a. Fate
27 b. Determinism
8 c. Compatibilism

467 17. Mind and Body
A. Mind-Body Dualism
17 1. Dualism
16 2. Interactionism
9 3. Panpsychism
4 4. Occasionalism
7 5. Parallelism
12 6. Epiphenomenalism
11 7. Zombies
28 8. Dualism of Mind Critique
B. Behaviourism
6 1. Behaviourism
12 2. Behavioural Dispositions
4 3. Instrumentalism
28 4. Behaviourism Critique
C. Functionalism
22 1. Functionalism
8 2. Machine Functionalism
2 3. Psycho-Functionalism
7 4. Causal Functionalism
7 5. Teleological Functionalism
4 6. Homuncular Functionalism
11 7. Chinese Room
18 8. Functionalism critique
D. Property Dualism
10 1. Reductionism critique
13 2. Anomalous Monism
17 3. Property Dualism
8 4. Emergentism
19 5. Supervenience of mind
13 6. Mysterianism
E. Physicalism
31 1. Physicalism
21 2. Reduction of Mind
19 3. Eliminativism
14 4. Connectionism
11 5. Causal Argument
4 6. Conceptual Dualism
14 7. Anti-Physicalism a. Physicalism critique
24 b. Multiple realisability
7 c. Knowledge argument
4 d. Explanatory gap
5 e. Modal argument

686 18. Thought
A. Modes of Thought
29 1. Thought
7 2. Propositional Attitudes
20 3. Emotions
20 5. Folk Psychology
28 6. Rationality
2 7. Intelligence
6 8. Human Thought
15 9. Indexical Thought
6 10. Rule Following
B. Mechanics of Thought
3 1. Psychology
19 2. Mentalese
13 3. Modularity of Mind
16 4. Mental Files
4 5. Categories of Understanding
C. Content
27 1. Content
15 2. Ideas
20 5. Twin Earth
39 6. Broad Content
9 7. Narrow Content
5 8. Intension
D. Concepts
25 1. Concepts a. Concepts
5 b. Concepts in philosophy
5 c. Concepts in psychology
9 2. Ontology of Concepts a. Concepts as representations
18 b. Concepts as abilities
21 c. Fregean concepts
9 3. Structure of Concepts a. Conceptual structure
10 b. Analysis of concepts
14 c. Classical concepts
22 d. Concepts as prototypes
10 e. Concepts from exemplars
16 f. Theory theory of concepts
4 g. Conceptual atomism
4 h. Conceptual priority
3 4. Concepts and Language a. Concepts and language
5 b. Concepts are linguistic
4 c. Concepts without language
11 5. Origin of Concepts a. Origin of concepts
6 b. Empirical concepts
15 c. Nativist concepts
21 6. Abstract Concepts a. Abstract concepts
22 b. Abstracta from selection
22 c. Abstracta by ignoring
2 d. Abstracta by example
7 e. Abstracta by negation
5 f. Abstracta by conflation
40 g. Abstracta by equivalence
28 h. Abstractionism critique
E. Artificial Intelligence
9 1. Artificial Intelligence
5 2. Turing Machines
6 3. Turing Test

766 19. Language
A. Language
24 1. Language
4 2. Syntax
17 3. Rhetoric
1 4. Ambiguity
14 5. Metaphor
23 6. Predicates
18 7. Private Language
B. Meaning
26 1. Meaning
9 2. Meaning as Mental
38 3. Meaning as Verification
25 4. Meaning as Use
8 5. Meaning as Speaker's Intention
29 6. Meaning as Truth-Conditions
10 7. Meaning by Role
10 8. Meaning through Sentences
15 9. Meaning Holism
7 11. Synonymy
12 12. Denial of Meanings
C. Semantics
28 1. Semantics
16 2. Fregean Semantics
7 3. Extensional Semantics
16 4. Truth-Conditions Semantics
17 5. Possible Worlds Semantics
11 6. Indexical Semantics
20 7. Two-Dimensional Semantics
8 8. Compositionality
D. Theories of Reference
24 1. Reference theories
4 2. Denoting
11 3. Direct Reference a. Direct reference
22 b. Causal reference
13 c. Social reference
21 4. Descriptive Reference a. Sense and reference
26 b. Reference by description
9 5. Speaker's Reference
E. Propositions
20 1. Propositions
42 2. Nature of Propositions
7 3. Types of Proposition
16 4. Support for Propositions
15 5. Propositions Critique
F. Analytic/Synthetic
7 1. Analytic and Synthetic
12 2. Analytic Propositions
10 3. Analytic Truths
15 4. Analytic/Synthetic Critique
G. Interpretation
4 1. Translation
19 2. Indeterminacy
21 3. Charity
H. Pragmatics
3 1. Assertion
10 2. Denial
5 3. Presupposition
9 4. Implicature
8 5. Contextual Meaning

200 20. Action
A. Definition of Action
8 1. Action Theory
5 2. Duration of an Action
2 3. Actions and Events
5 4. Action as Movement
1 5. Action as Trying
B. Motives for Action
8 1. Acting on Desires
4 2. Acting on Beliefs a. Acting on beliefs
4 b. Action cognitivism
20 3. Acting on Reason a. Practical reason
28 b. Intellectualism
13 c. Reasons as causes
C. Preliminaries of Action
15 1. Intention to Act a. Nature of intentions
4 b. Types of intention
3 c. Reducing intentions
5 d. Group intentions
21 2. Willed Action a. Will to Act
2 b. Volitionism
18 c. Weakness of will
2 3. Goal of Action
D. Explaining an Action
3 1. Explanations of Actions
6 2. Causes of Actions
8 3. Agent Causation
6 4. Justifying an Action
9 5. Responsibility for Actions

110 21. Aesthetics
A. Aesthetics
6 1. Aesthetics
B. Aesthetic Experience
37 1. Beauty
5 2. Taste
4 3. Aesthetic Attitude
C. Aesthetic Judgement
4 1. Objectivism in Art
2 2. Subjectivism in Art
D. Aesthetic Concepts
6 1. Artistic Intentions
3 2. Artistic Representation
3 3. Expression in Art
1 4. Interpretation of Art
E. Art Theories
1 1. Ontology of Art
6 2. Value of Art
9 3. Art and Morality
3 4. Art as Form
8 6. Art as Expression
3 7. Art as Language
F. Arts
6 1. Music
3 3. Poetry

680 22. Metaethics
A. Ethical Ends
26 1. Value a. Nature of value
9 b. Objective value
14 c. Subjective value
7 d. Value of life
27 e. Ultimate value
28 2. Goodness a. Goodness
25 b. Candidates for the Good
19 c. Form of the Good
16 5. Happiness a. Nature of happiness
12 b. Eudaimonia
14 c. Value of happiness
35 d. Routes to happiness
10 6. Pleasure a. Nature of pleasure
36 b. Value of pleasure
20 c. Types of pleasure
9 d. Sources of pleasure
12 e. Role of pleasure
9 f. Dangers of pleasure
16 7. Altruism
31 8. Love
15 9. Selfishness
B. Basis of Ethics
20 1. Morality
18 2. Moral Theory
25 3. Morality as Convention
21 4. Is/Ought
23 5. Moral Responsibility
7 6. Right
12 7. Moral Motives
6 8. Superman
7 9. Morality critique
C. Sources of Ethics
2 1. Biological Ethics
32 2. Human Nature
37 3. Intuitionism
19 4. Expressivism
14 5. Prescriptivism
14 6. Ethics from Reason
4 7. Particularism
1 8. Will to Power
D. Consequentialism
19 1. Consequentialism
1 2. Benefit
7 3. Moral Luck
1 4. Chaotic Outcome

731 23. Ethics
A. Egoism
23 1. Ethical Egoism
8 2. Hedonism
5 3. Cyrenaic School
B. Contract Ethics
19 1. Contractarianism
10 2. Golden Rule
7 3. Promise Keeping
4 4. Value of Authority
5 5. Free Rider
1 6. Game Theory
1 7. Prisoner's Dilemma
3 8. Contract Strategies
2 9. Contractualism
C. Virtue Theory
42 1. Virtue Theory a. Nature of virtue
18 b. Basis of virtue
8 c. Particularism
16 d. Virtue theory critique
4 2. Elements of Virtue Theory a. Natural virtue
11 b. Living naturally
41 c. Motivation for virtue
23 d. Teaching virtue
25 e. Character
21 f. The Mean
1 g. Desires
8 h. Right feelings
4 i. Absolute virtues
13 j. Unity of virtue
32 3. Virtues a. Virtues
8 b. Temperance
24 c. Justice
11 d. Courage
8 e. Honour
17 f. Compassion
13 g. Contemplation
7 4. External Goods a. External goods
1 b. Health
16 c. Wealth
18 d. Friendship
D. Deontological Ethics
21 1. Deontology
36 2. Duty
36 3. Universalisability
3 4. Persons as Ends
16 5. Motivation for Duty
E. Utilitarianism
30 1. Utilitarianism
6 2. Ideal of Pleasure
7 3. Motivation for Altruism
2 4. Unfairness
2 5. Rule Utilitarianism
1 6. Ideal Utilitarianism
F. Existentialism
12 1. Existentialism
14 2. Nihilism
5 3. Angst
21 4. Boredom
9 5. Existence-Essence
15 6. Authentic Self
10 7. Existential Action
7 8. Eternal Recurrence

149 24. Applied Ethics
A. Decision Conflicts
4 1. Applied Ethics
6 2. Dilemmas
4 4. Autonomy
7 5. Omissions
4 6. Double Effect
B. Moral Rights
2 1. Rights
7 2. Sexual Morality
24 3. Animal Rights
C. Death Issues
24 1. Death
9 2. Causing Death
29 3. Abortion
20 4. Suicide
9 5. Euthanasia

646 25. Society
A. State of Nature
21 1. A People a. Human distinctiveness
16 b. The natural life
6 c. A unified people
7 2. Natural Freedom
3 3. Natural Equality
14 4. Natural Rights a. Natural rights
11 b. Alienating rights
1 5. Original Position a. Original position
2 b. Veil of ignorance
3 c. Difference principle
B. The State
22 1. Purpose of a State
7 2. State Legitimacy a. Sovereignty
3 c. Natural authority
10 d. Social contract
23 e. General will
7 3. Constitutions
7 4. Citizenship
4 5. Leaders a. Autocracy
16 b. Monarchy
17 c. Despotism
13 d. Elites
8 6. Government a. Government
3 b. Legislature
2 c. Executive
2 d. Size of government
1 7. Changing the State a. Centralisation
2 b. Devolution
7 c. Revolution
14 8. Religion in Society
7 8. Culture
6 9. Population a. State population
3 b. Human population
C. Political Doctrines
3 1. Political Theory
5 2. Social Utilitarianism
4 3. Anarchism
4 4. Conservatism
18 5. Democracy a. Nature of democracy
10 b. Consultation
6 c. Direct democracy
8 d. Representative democracy
16 6. Liberalism
15 7. Communism
16 8. Communitarianism
1 9. Socialism
7 11. Theocracy
D. Social Rights
17 1. Legal Rights a. Basis of rights
2 b. Inalienable rights
21 c. Property rights
17 2. Social Freedom a. Slavery
4 b. Freedom of belief
7 c. Free speech
4 d. Free market
21 e. Freedom of lifestyle
2 f. Freedom to leave
19 3. Social Equality a. Grounds of equality
10 b. Political equality
2 c. Legal equality
10 d. Economic equality
15 4. Right to Punish a. Right to punish
9 b. Retribution for crime
4 c. Deterrence of crime
E. State Functions
11 2. The Law a. Legal system
14 b. Natural law
3 c. Legal positivism
4 3. Taxation
1 4. Welfare provision
18 5. Education a. Education principles
10 b. Aims of education
19 c. Teaching
10 d. History study
11 6. War

983 26. Natural Theory
A. Heart of Nature
19 1. Nature
43 2. Natural Purpose
8 3. Natural Function
12 4. Pythagoreanism
B. Concepts of Nature
20 1. Basis of Nature
6 2. The Unlimited
12 3. Space a. Space
12 b. Points in space
12 c. Substantival space
6 d. Relational space
32 4. Time a. Time
14 b. Tensed (A) time
9 c. Tenseless (B) time
2 d. Beginning of time
13 e. Existence of time
33 f. Presentism
6 g. Eternalism
10 h. Growing block of time
17 i. Time and change
5 j. Time as subjective
15 5. Space-Time
20 6. Natural Kinds a. Natural kinds
9 b. Defining kinds
9 c. Knowing kinds
13 d. Source of kinds
7 e. Necessity of kinds
13 f. Reference to natural kinds
12 g. Critique of kinds
C. Causation
26 1. Causation a. Causation
19 b. Types of cause
5 c. Final causes
23 d. Naturalised causation
19 e. Direction of causation
5 f. Causation as primitive
16 g. Eliminating causation
11 2. Particular Causation a. Observation of causation
35 b. Causal relata
19 c. Conditions of causation
13 d. Selecting the cause
10 e. Probabilistic causation
23 3. General Causation a. Constant conjunction
22 b. Nomological causation
31 c. Counterfactual causation
28 d. Causal necessity
D. Laws of Nature
42 1. Laws of Nature
7 2. Types of Laws
6 3. Laws and Generalities
40 4. Regularities a. Regularity theory
17 b. Best system theory
13 5. Laws from Universals
6 6. Laws as Numerical
10 7. Strictness of Laws
37 8. Scientific Essentialism a. Scientific essentialism
26 b. Scientific necessity
20 c. Essence and laws
14 d. Knowing essences
17 e. Anti scientific essentialism
10 9. Counterfactual Claims
1 10. Closure of Physics
23 12. Against Laws of Nature

345 27. Natural Reality
A. Physics
11 1. Matter a. Greek matter
11 b. Prime matter
34 c. Atoms
10 d. Elements in general
17 e. Greek elements
6 f. Corpuscles
4 g. Matter as extension
1 h. Mass
26 i. Modern matter
1 j. Electrons
2 k. Quantum theory
3 l. String theory
39 2. Movement
26 3. Force
5 4. Energy
1 5. Light
3 6. Special Relativity
B. Chemistry
18 1. Chemistry
7 2. Modern elements
17 3. Periodic Table
C. Biology
2 1. Biology
15 2. Life
21 3. Evolution
3 4. Ecology
13 5. Species
D. Cosmology
17 1. Cosmology
15 2. Beginning
10 3. Infinite in Nature
3 4. Unique Cosmos
4 5. General Relativity

377 28. God
A. Divine Nature
5 1. God
44 2. Divine Nature
20 3. Divine Perfections
12 4. Divine Contradictions
8 5. Divine Morality a. Divine morality
19 b. Euthyphro question
10 c. God is the good
15 d. God decrees morality
4 6. God and Time
13 7. God Reflecting Humanity
B. Proving God
8 1. Proof of God
10 2. Fideism
C. Proofs of Reason
31 1. Ontological Proof
35 2. Ontological Proof critique
5 3. Moral Argument
6 4. Pascal's Wager
D. Proofs of Evidence
21 1. Cosmological Proof
24 2. Teleological Proof
22 3. Teleological Proof critique
2 4. Religious Experience
12 5. Miracles
E. Attitudes to God
4 1. Monotheism
11 2. Pantheism
4 3. Deism
32 4. Atheism

222 29. Religion
A. Religious Thought
23 1. Religious Belief
3 2. Religious Meaning
3 3. Religious Verification
3 4. Religious Falsification
B. Polytheistic Religion
8 1. Hinduism
9 2. Paganism
C. Monotheistic Religion
13 1. Judaism
4 2. Zoroastrianism
29 3. Christianity a. Christianity
1 b. Transubstantiation
4 c. Angels
3 d. Heresy
3 4. Bible
8 7. Islam
D. Spiritual Disciplines
1 1. Confucianism
4 2. Taoism
9 3. Buddhism
3 4. Zen Buddhism
E. Immortality
27 1. Immortality
14 2. Soul
2 3. Animal Souls
9 4. Heaven
4 5. Hell
F. Problem of Evil
15 1. Problem of Evil
6 2. Human Evil
4 3. Human Error
10 4. Natural Evil