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900 1. Philosophy
A. Wisdom
31 1. Nature of Wisdom
29 2. Wise People
15 3. Wisdom Deflated
B. History of Ideas
10 1. History of Ideas
5 2. Ancient Thought
77 3. Greek-English Lexicon
6 4. Early European Thought
12 5. Later European Thought
2 6. Twentieth Century Thought
C. History of Philosophy
7 1. History of Philosophy
42 2. Ancient Philosophy a. Ancient chronology
6 b. Pre-Socratic philosophy
5 c. Classical philosophy
16 3. Earlier European Philosophy a. Earlier European chronology
3 b. Early medieval philosophy
3 c. Later medieval philosophy
3 d. Renaissance philosophy
27 4. Later European Philosophy a. Later European chronology
6 b. Seventeenth century philosophy
5 c. Eighteenth century philosophy
5 d. Nineteenth century philosophy
33 5. Modern Philosophy a. Modern philosophy chronology
2 b. Modern philosophy beginnings
2 c. Modern philosophy mid-period
1 d. Contemporary philosophy
D. Nature of Philosophy
27 1. Philosophy
19 2. Invocation to Philosophy
26 3. Philosophy Defined
5 4. Divisions of Philosophy
24 5. Aims of Philosophy a. Philosophy as worldly
10 b. Philosophy as transcendent
6 c. Philosophy as generalisation
11 d. Philosophy as puzzles
13 e. Philosophy as reason
11 6. Hopes for Philosophy
41 7. Despair over Philosophy
13 8. Humour
E. Nature of Metaphysics
24 1. Nature of Metaphysics
18 2. Possibility of Metaphysics
22 3. Metaphysical Systems
20 4. Metaphysics as Science
19 5. Metaphysics beyond Science
19 6. Metaphysics as Conceptual
13 7. Against Metaphysics
F. Analytic Philosophy
42 1. Analysis
22 2. Conceptual Analysis
6 3. Necessary/Sufficient Conditions
20 4. Ordinary Language
23 5. Against Analysis
G. Scientific Philosophy
12 1. Aims of Science
8 2. Positivism
29 3. Scientism
H. Continental Philosophy
14 1. Continental Philosophy
12 2. Phenomenology
7 3. Hermeneutics
2 4. Linguistic Structuralism
3 5. Critical Theory
6 6. Deconstruction

550 2. Reason
A. Nature of Reason
31 1. On Reason
18 2. Logos
12 3. Pure Reason
27 4. Aims of Reason
18 5. Objectivity
24 6. Coherence
16 7. Status of Reason
6 8. Naturalising Reason
24 9. Limits of Reason
B. Laws of Thought
9 1. Laws of Thought
21 2. Sufficient Reason
18 3. Non-Contradiction
8 4. Contraries
5 5. Opposites
25 6. Ockham's Razor
C. Styles of Reason
30 1. Dialectic
7 2. Elenchus
6 3. Eristic
D. Definition
18 1. Definitions
19 2. Aims of Definition
11 3. Types of Definition
25 4. Real Definition
23 5. Genus and Differentia
14 6. Definition by Essence
13 7. Contextual Definition
7 8. Impredicative Definition
1 9. Recursive Definition
4 10. Stipulative Definition
5 11. Ostensive Definition
10 12. Against Definition
E. Argument
8 1. Argument
3 2. Transcendental Argument
8 3. Analogy
1 4. Open Question
1 5. Reductio ad Absurdum
8 6. Conclusive Proof
5 7. Thought Experiments
F. Fallacies
7 1. Fallacy
3 2. Infinite Regress
2 3. Question Begging
8 4. Circularity
4 5. Fallacy of Composition
1 6. Fallacy of Division
4 7. Ad Hominem
10 8. Category Mistake a. Category mistakes
5 b. Category mistake as syntactic
11 c. Category mistake as semantic
5 d. Category mistake as pragmatic
1 e. Category mistake as ontological

576 3. Truth
A. Truth Problems
28 1. Truth
25 2. Defining Truth
19 3. Value of Truth
8 4. Uses of Truth
24 5. Truth Bearers
7 6. Verisimilitude
5 7. Falsehood
13 8. Subjective Truth
10 9. Rejecting Truth
B. Truthmakers
8 1. For Truthmakers
11 2. Truthmaker Relation
9 3. Truthmaker Maximalism
11 4. Truthmaker Necessitarianism
21 5. What Makes Truths a. What makes truths
8 b. Objects make truths
4 c. States of affairs make truths
7 d. Being makes truths
9 6. Making Negative Truths
10 7. Making Modal Truths
3 8. Making General Truths
6 9. Making Past Truths
4 10. Making Future Truths
11 11. Truthmaking and Correspondence
16 12. Rejecting Truthmakers
C. Correspondence Truth
32 1. Correspondence Truth
12 2. Correspondence to Facts
26 3. Correspondence Truth critique
D. Coherence Truth
21 1. Coherence Truth
8 2. Coherence Truth Critique
E. Pragmatic Truth
22 1. Pragmatic Truth
F. Semantic Truth
26 1. Tarski's Truth a. Tarski's truth definition
18 b. Satisfaction and truth
7 c. Meta-language for truth
35 2. Semantic Truth
G. Axiomatic Truth
34 1. Axiomatic Truth
3 2. FS Truth Axioms
6 3. KF Truth Axioms
H. Deflationary Truth
12 1. Redundant Truth
30 2. Deflationary Truth
7 3. Minimalist Truth

763 4. Formal Logic
A. Syllogistic Logic
11 1. Aristotelian Logic
14 2. Syllogistic Logic
5 3. Term Logic
B. Propositional Logic PL
12 1. Propositional Logic
9 2. Tools of Propositional Logic a. Symbols of PL
16 b. Terminology of PL
14 c. Derivation rules of PL
18 d. Basic theorems of PL
17 e. Axioms of PL
9 3. Truth Tables
2 4. Soundness of PL
1 5. Completeness of PL
C. Predicate Calculus PC
2 1. Predicate Calculus PC
4 2. Tools of Predicate Calculus a. Symbols of PC
1 b. Terminology of PC
6 c. Derivations rules of PC
4 d. Universal quantifier ∀
4 e. Existential quantifier ∃
1 3. Completeness of PC
D. Modal Logic ML
18 1. Modal Logic
4 2. Tools of Modal Logic a. Symbols of ML
6 b. Terminology of ML
15 c. Derivation rules of ML
6 3. Modal Logic Systems a. Systems of modal logic
2 b. System K
6 c. System D
4 d. System T
1 e. System K4
5 f. System B
7 g. System S4
18 h. System S5
11 4. Alethic Modal Logic
3 5. Epistemic Logic
3 6. Temporal Logic
25 7. Barcan Formula
E. Nonclassical Logics
2 1. Nonclassical Logics
15 2. Intuitionist Logic
6 3. Many-Valued Logic
4 4. Fuzzy Logic
8 5. Relevant Logic
8 6. Free Logic
5 7. Paraconsistency
3 8. Intensional Logic
1 9. Awareness Logic
1 10. Justification Logics
1 11. Dynamic Logics
6 12. Non-Monotonic Logic
F. Set Theory ST
30 1. Set Theory
19 2. Mechanics of Set Theory a. Symbols of ST
40 b. Terminology of ST
4 c. Basic theorems of ST
4 3. Types of Set a. Types of set
29 b. Empty (Null) Set
12 c. Unit (Singleton) Set
10 d. Infinite Sets
7 e. Equivalence classes
33 4. Axioms for Sets a. Axioms for sets
9 b. Axiom of Extensionality I
5 c. Axiom of Pairing II
3 d. Axiom of Unions III
1 e. Axiom of the Empty Set IV
12 f. Axiom of Infinity V
5 g. Axiom of Powers VI
5 h. Axiom of Replacement VII
6 i. Axiom of Foundation VIII
34 j. Axiom of Choice IX
2 k. Axiom of Existence
2 l. Axiom of Specification
3 m. Axiom of Separation
3 n. Axiom of Comprehension
6 o. Axiom of Constructibility V = L
6 p. Axiom of Reducibility
8 5. Conceptions of Set a. Sets as existing
1 b. Combinatorial sets
5 c. Logical sets
6 d. Na´ve logical sets
14 e. Iterative sets
7 f. Limitation of Size
10 6. Ordering in Sets
9 7. Natural Sets
23 8. Critique of Set Theory
G. Formal Mereology
23 1. Mereology
11 2. Terminology of Mereology
9 3. Axioms of Mereology
3 4. Groups

1166 5. Theory of Logic
A. Overview of Logic
33 1. Overview of Logic
15 2. History of Logic
21 3. Value of Logic
17 4. Pure Logic
18 5. First-Order Logic
26 6. Classical Logic
32 7. Second-Order Logic
8 8. Logic of Mathematics
2 9. Philosophical Logic
B. Logical Consequence
27 1. Logical Consequence
6 2. Types of Consequence
6 3. Deductive Consequence |-
15 4. Semantic Consequence |=
9 5. Modus Ponens
2 6. Entailment
5 7. Strict Implication
7 8. Material Implication
C. Ontology of Logic
18 1. Ontology of Logic
5 2. Platonism in Logic
11 3. If-Thenism
8 4. Logic by Convention
D. Assumptions for Logic
13 1. Bivalence
24 2. Excluded Middle
4 3. Contradiction
16 4. Identity in Logic
E. Structures of Logic
36 1. Logical Form
27 2. Logical Connectives a. Logical connectives
3 b. Basic connectives
9 c. not
6 d. and
7 e. or
2 3. Constants in Logic
19 4. Variables in Logic
12 5. Functions in Logic
9 6. Relations in Logic
6 7. Predicates in Logic
9 8. Theories in Logic
F. Referring in Logic
31 1. Naming a. Names
31 b. Names as descriptive
20 c. Names as referential
15 d. Singular terms
13 e. Empty names
6 f. Names eliminated
4 2. Descriptions a. Descriptions
21 b. Definite descriptions
22 c. Theory of definite descriptions
5 3. Property (λ-) Abstraction
G. Quantification
21 1. Quantification
16 2. Domain of Quantification
9 3. Objectual Quantification
22 4. Substitutional Quantification
11 5. Second-Order Quantification
25 6. Plural Quantification
9 7. Unorthodox Quantification
H. Proof Systems
4 1. Proof Systems
6 2. Axiomatic Proof
7 3. Proof from Assumptions
13 4. Natural Deduction
8 5. Tableau Proof
5 6. Sequent Calculi
I. Semantics of Logic
21 1. Semantics of Logic
6 2. Formal Truth
23 3. Logical Truth
12 4. Satisfaction
4 5. Extensionalism
4 6. Intensionalism
J. Model Theory in Logic
34 1. Logical Models
13 2. Isomorphisms
24 3. L÷wenheim-Skolem Theorems
K. Features of Logics
30 1. Axiomatisation
10 2. Consistency
12 3. Soundness
14 4. Completeness
10 5. Incompleteness
17 6. Compactness
7 7. Decidability
10 8. Enumerability
2 9. Expressibility
6 10. Monotonicity
L. Paradox
5 1. Paradox
20 2. Aporiai
8 3. Antinomies
7 4. Paradoxes in Logic a. Achilles paradox
1 b. K÷nig's paradox
4 c. Berry's paradox
1 d. Richard's paradox
2 e. The Lottery paradox
4 5. Paradoxes in Set Theory a. Set theory paradoxes
1 b. Cantor's paradox
4 c. Burali-Forti's paradox
5 d. Russell's paradox
2 e. Mirimanoff's paradox
16 6. Paradoxes in Language a. The Liar paradox
5 b. The Heap paradox ('Sorites')
2 c. Grelling's paradox
1 d. The Preface paradox
2 7. Paradoxes of Time

1139 6. Mathematics
A. Nature of Mathematics
30 1. Mathematics
31 2. Geometry
23 3. Nature of Numbers a. Numbers
25 b. Types of number
19 c. Priority of numbers
6 d. Natural numbers
29 e. Ordinal numbers
8 f. Cardinal numbers
28 g. Real numbers
5 h. Reals from Cauchy
11 i. Reals from cuts
2 j. Complex numbers
1 k. Imaginary numbers
7 l. Zero
7 m. One
2 n. Pi
19 4. Using Numbers a. Units
4 b. Quantity
29 c. Counting procedure
12 d. Counting via concepts
8 e. Counting by correlation
9 f. Arithmetic
10 g. Applying mathematics
26 5. The Infinite a. The Infinite
3 b. Mark of the infinite
4 c. Potential infinite
11 d. Actual infinite
1 e. Countable infinity
5 f. Uncountable infinities
15 g. Continuum Hypothesis
8 h. Ordinal infinity
10 i. Cardinal infinity
5 j. Infinite divisibility
9 k. Infinitesimals
5 l. Limits
B. Foundations for Mathematics
15 1. Foundations for Mathematics
7 2. Proof in Mathematics
20 3. Axioms for Geometry
19 4. Axioms for Number a. Axioms for numbers
2 b. Baby arithmetic
2 c. Robinson arithmetic
25 d. Peano arithmetic
9 e. Peano arithmetic 2nd-order
10 f. Mathematical induction
20 g. Incompleteness of Arithmetic
3 5. Definitions of Number a. Defining numbers
10 b. Greek arithmetic
45 c. Fregean numbers
18 d. Hume's Principle
13 e. Caesar problem
3 f. Zermelo numbers
4 g. Von Neumann numbers
36 6. Mathematics as Set Theory a. Mathematics is set theory
13 b. Mathematics is not set theory
33 7. Mathematical Structuralism a. Structuralism
11 b. Varieties of structuralism
13 c. Nominalist structuralism
12 d. Platonist structuralism
23 e. Structuralism critique
C. Sources of Mathematics
33 1. Mathematical Platonism a. For mathematical platonism
21 b. Against mathematical platonism
11 2. Intuition of Mathematics
5 3. Mathematical Nominalism
36 4. Mathematical Empiricism a. Mathematical empiricism
17 b. Indispensability of mathematics
18 c. Against mathematical empiricism
14 5. Numbers as Adjectival
31 6. Logicism a. Early logicism
15 b. Type theory
13 c. Neo-logicism
36 d. Logicism critique
20 7. Formalism
5 8. Finitism
10 9. Fictional Mathematics
16 10. Constructivism a. Constructivism
18 b. Intuitionism
8 c. Conceptualism
16 d. Predicativism
3 e. Psychologism

926 7. Existence
A. Nature of Existence
30 1. Nature of Existence
18 2. Types of Existence
20 3. Being a. Nature of Being
4 b. Being and existence
8 c. Becoming
22 d. Non-being
6 e. Being and nothing
7 f. Primary being
15 g. Particular being
11 h. Dasein (being human)
4 i. Deflating being
6 4. The Absolute
13 5. Abstract Existence
18 6. Reason for Existence
33 7. Criterion for Existence
B. Change in Existence
28 1. Nature of Change
17 2. Processes
4 3. Moments
17 4. Events a. Nature of events
11 b. Events as primitive
18 c. Reduction of events
C. Structure of Existence
22 1. Grounding a. Nature of grounding
8 b. Relata of grounding
8 c. Grounding and explanation
2 d. Grounding and reduction
24 2. Reduction
6 3. Levels of Reality
16 4. Ontological Dependence
14 5. Supervenience a. Nature of supervenience
9 b. Types of supervenience
22 c. Significance of supervenience
8 d. Humean supervenience
3 6. Fundamentals a. Fundamental reality
2 b. Types of fundamental
24 c. Monads
13 d. Logical atoms
25 7. Abstract/Concrete a. Abstract/concrete
6 b. Levels of abstraction
17 8. Stuff a. Pure stuff
7 b. Mixtures
D. Theories of Reality
33 1. Realism
21 2. Reality
33 3. Anti-realism
5 4. Naturalism
20 5. Physicalism
12 6. Fictionalism
18 7. Facts a. Facts
11 b. Types of fact
5 c. Facts and truths
3 d. Facts rejected
8 8. States of Affairs
12 9. Vagueness a. Vagueness of reality
9 b. Vagueness as epistemic
15 c. Vagueness as semantic
6 d. Vagueness, degrees of
21 e. Supervaluation for vagueness
21 10. Ontological Commitment a. Ontological commitment
9 b. Commitment of quantifiers
5 c. Commitment of predicates
11 d. Commitment of theories
18 e. Ontological commitment problems
E. Categories
18 1. Categories
16 2. Categorisation
24 3. Proposed Categories
9 4. Category Realism
17 5. Category Anti-Realism

839 8. Modes of Existence
A. Relations
30 1. Nature of Relations
14 2. Internal Relations
4 3. Structural Relations
12 4. Formal Relations a. Types of relation
2 b. Equivalence relation
3 c. Ancestral relation
B. Properties
32 1. Nature of Properties
9 2. Need for Properties
16 3. Types of Properties
18 4. Intrinsic Properties
30 5. Natural Properties
29 6. Categorical Properties
14 7. Emergent Properties
17 8. Properties as Modes
4 9. Qualities
30 10. Properties as Predicates
20 11. Properties as Sets
18 12. Denial of Properties
36 13. Tropes a. Nature of tropes
22 b. Critique of tropes
C. Powers and Dispositions
30 1. Powers
34 2. Powers as Basic
22 3. Powers as Derived
23 4. Powers as Essence
26 5. Powers and Properties
18 6. Dispositions a. Dispositions
11 b. Dispositions and powers
12 c. Dispositions as conditional
11 d. Dispositions as occurrent
5 e. Dispositions as potential
18 7. Against Powers
D. Universals
37 1. Universals
22 2. Need for Universals
12 3. Instantiated Universals
12 4. Uninstantiated Universals
5 5. Universals as Concepts
26 6. Platonic Forms a. Platonic Forms
21 b. Partaking
6 c. Self-predication
23 d. Forms critiques
E. Nominalism
16 1. Nominalism a. Nominalism
15 b. Nominalism about universals
9 c. Nominalism about abstracta
24 2. Resemblance Nominalism
13 3. Predicate Nominalism
6 4. Concept Nominalism
17 5. Class Nominalism
5 6. Mereological Nominalism

1474 9. Objects
A. Existence of Objects
34 1. Physical Objects
16 2. Abstract Objects a. Nature of abstracta
5 b. Need for abstracta
17 c. Modern abstracta
7 d. Problems with abstracta
13 3. Objects in Thought
39 4. Individuation a. Individuation
11 b. Individuation by properties
12 c. Individuation by location
20 d. Individuation by haecceity
40 e. Individuation by kind
7 5. Simples
29 6. Nihilism about Objects
B. Unity of Objects
22 1. Unifying an Object a. Intrinsic unification
18 b. Unifying aggregates
11 c. Unity as conceptual
38 2. Substance a. Substance
6 b. Need for substance
20 c. Types of substance
35 d. Substance defined
20 e. Substance critique
3 3. Unity Problems a. Scattered objects
8 b. Cat and its tail
38 c. Statue and clay
10 d. Coincident objects
28 e. Vague objects
C. Structure of Objects
15 1. Structure of an Object
27 2. Hylomorphism a. Hylomorphism
8 b. Form as principle
8 c. Form as causal
11 d. Form as unifier
13 3. Matter of an Object
9 4. Quantity of an Object
23 5. Composition of an Object
21 6. Constitution of an Object
22 7. Substratum
27 8. Parts of Objects a. Parts of objects
22 b. Sums of parts
43 c. Wholes from parts
D. Essence of Objects
26 1. Essences of Objects
16 2. Types of Essence
39 3. Individual Essences
21 4. Essence as Definition
27 5. Essence as Kind
24 6. Essence as Unifier
21 7. Essence and Necessity a. Essence as necessary properties
22 b. Essence not necessities
9 c. Essentials are necessary
21 8. Essence as Explanatory
31 9. Essence and Properties
18 10. Essence as Species
11 11. Essence of Artefacts
7 12. Essential Parts
29 13. Nominal Essence
19 14. Knowledge of Essences
34 15. Against Essentialism
E. Objects over Time
14 1. Objects over Time
16 2. Objects that Change
12 3. Three-Dimensionalism
22 4. Four-Dimensionalism
21 5. Temporal Parts
10 6. Successive Things
8 7. Intermittent Objects
8 8. Continuity of Rivers
19 9. Ship of Theseus
9 10. Beginning of an Object
3 11. End of an Object
21 12. Origin as Essential
3 13. No Identity over Time
F. Identity among Objects
27 1. Concept of Identity
13 2. Defining Identity
18 3. Relative Identity
11 4. Type Identity
23 5. Self-Identity
20 6. Identity between Objects
38 7. Indiscernible Objects
18 8. Leibniz's Law
9 9. Sameness

768 10. Modality
A. Necessity
8 1. Types of Modality
22 2. Nature of Necessity
26 3. Types of Necessity
14 4. De re / De dicto modality
29 5. Metaphysical Necessity
39 6. Logical Necessity
19 7. Natural Necessity
6 8. Transcendental Necessity
1 9. Normative Necessity
6 10. Impossibility
20 11. Denial of Necessity
B. Possibility
37 1. Possibility
3 2. Epistemic possibility
4 3. Combinatorial possibility
12 4. Potentiality
9 5. Contingency
14 6. Probability
9 7. Chance
11 8. Conditionals a. Conditionals
6 b. Types of conditional
24 c. Truth-function conditionals
15 d. Non-truthfunction conditionals
5 e. Supposition conditionals
6 f. Pragmatics of conditionals
21 9. Counterfactuals
C. Sources of Modality
28 1. Sources of Necessity
3 2. Necessity as Primitive
11 3. Necessity by Convention
11 4. Necessity from Concepts
15 5. Modality from Actuality
16 6. Necessity from Essence
D. Knowledge of Modality
19 1. A Priori Necessary
6 2. A Priori Contingent
10 3. A Posteriori Necessary
23 4. Conceivable as Possible a. Conceivable as possible
10 b. Conceivable but impossible
6 c. Possible but inconceivable
E. Possible worlds
31 1. Possible Worlds a. Possible worlds
8 b. Impossible worlds
13 c. Possible worlds realism
13 d. Possible worlds actualism
26 e. Against possible worlds
30 2. Nature of Possible Worlds a. Nature of possible worlds
8 b. Worlds as fictions
7 c. Worlds as propositions
30 3. Transworld Objects a. Transworld identity
22 b. Rigid designation
31 c. Counterparts
16 d. Haecceitism
9 e. Possible Objects

403 11. Knowledge Aims
A. Knowledge
36 1. Knowledge
38 2. Understanding
6 3. Value of Knowledge
27 4. Belief a. Beliefs
11 b. Elements of beliefs
25 c. Aim of beliefs
13 d. Cause of beliefs
8 e. Belief holism
4 f. Animal beliefs
5 5. Aiming at Truth
7 6. Knowing How
10 7. Knowledge First
B. Certain Knowledge
25 1. Certainty
7 2. Common Sense Certainty
6 3. Error
12 4. Fallibilism
26 5. The Cogito
31 6. Cogito Critique
C. Knowing Reality
5 1. Perceptual Realism a. Na´ve realism
14 b. Direct realism
8 c. Representative realism
30 2. Phenomenalism
38 3. Idealism
5 4. Transcendental Idealism
6 5. Solipsism

631 12. Knowledge Sources
A. A Priori Knowledge
22 1. Nature of the A Priori
18 2. Self-Evidence
14 3. Innate Knowledge a. Innate knowledge
6 b. Recollection doctrine
8 c. Tabula rasa
19 4. A Priori as Necessities
23 5. A Priori Synthetic
7 6. A Priori from Reason
6 7. A Priori from Convention
20 8. A Priori as Analytic
15 9. A Priori from Concepts
7 10. A Priori as Subjective
9 11. Denying the A Priori
B. Perception
32 1. Perception
8 2. Qualities in Perception a. Qualities in perception
11 b. Primary/secondary
17 c. Primary qualities
28 d. Secondary qualities
17 e. Primary/secondary critique
22 3. Representation
23 4. Sense Data a. Sense-data theory
16 b. Nature of sense-data
3 c. Unperceived sense-data
18 d. Sense-data problems
23 5. Interpretation
18 6. Inference in Perception
10 7. Causal Perception
12 8. Adverbial Theory
C. Rationalism
38 1. Rationalism
D. Empiricism
38 1. Empiricism
16 2. Associationism
8 3. Pragmatism
19 4. Pro-Empiricism
34 5. Empiricism Critique
E. Direct Knowledge
23 1. Intuition
3 2. Inspiration
20 3. Memory

584 13. Knowledge Criteria
A. Justification Problems
13 1. Justification a. Justification issues
11 b. Need for justification
10 c. Defeasibility
10 2. Justification Challenges a. Agrippa's trilemma
13 b. Gettier problem
17 c. Knowledge closure
23 3. Internal or External a. Pro-internalism
5 b. Pro-externalism
3 c. Disjunctivism
B. Internal Justification
9 1. Epistemic virtues
8 2. Pragmatic justification
16 3. Evidentialism a. Evidence
9 b. Evidentialism
16 4. Foundationalism a. Foundationalism
14 b. Basic beliefs
11 c. Empirical foundations
8 d. Rational foundations
6 e. Pro-foundations
19 f. Foundationalism critique
22 5. Coherentism a. Coherence as justification
9 b. Pro-coherentism
17 c. Coherentism critique
C. External Justification
20 1. External Justification
14 2. Causal Justification
12 3. Reliabilism a. Reliable knowledge
13 b. Anti-reliabilism
3 4. Tracking the Facts
5 5. Controlling Beliefs
18 6. Contextual Justification a. Contextualism
10 b. Invariantism
13 7. Testimony
9 8. Social Justification
7 9. Naturalised Epistemology
7 10. Anti External Justification
D. Scepticism
33 1. Scepticism
7 2. Types of Scepticism
18 3. Illusion Scepticism
3 4. Demon Scepticism
6 5. Dream Scepticism
26 6. Scepticism Critique
E. Relativism
28 1. Relativism
4 2. Knowledge as Convention
21 3. Subjectivism
12 4. Cultural relativism
7 5. Language Relativism
19 6. Relativism Critique

627 14. Science
A. Basis of Science
7 1. Observation
24 2. Demonstration
11 3. Experiment
17 4. Prediction
6 5. Anomalies
13 6. Falsification
B. Scientific Theories
31 1. Scientific Theory
14 2. Aim of Science
12 3. Instrumentalism
3 4. Paradigm
8 5. Commensurability
4 6. Theory Holism
7 7. Scientific Models
8 8. Ramsey Sentences
C. Induction
25 1. Induction
13 2. Aims of Induction
31 3. Limits of Induction
12 4. Reason in Induction
20 5. Paradoxes of Induction a. Grue problem
16 b. Raven paradox
16 6. Bayes's Theorem
D. Explanation
18 1. Explanation a. Explanation
25 b. Aims of explanation
6 c. Direction of explanation
3 d. Explaining people
31 2. Types of Explanation a. Types of explanation
4 b. Contrastive explanations
14 c. Explanations by coherence
2 d. Consilience
35 e. Lawlike explanations
5 f. Necessity in explanations
31 g. Causal explanations
4 h. Explanations by function
32 i. Explanations by mechanism
13 j. Explanations by reduction
34 k. Explanations by essence
7 l. Probabilistic explanations
5 m. Explanation by proof
26 3. Best Explanation a. Best explanation
12 b. Ultimate explanation
11 c. Against best explanation
9 4. Explanation Doubts a. Explanation as pragmatic
2 b. Rejecting explanation

472 15. Nature of Minds
A. Nature of Mind
7 1. Mind a. Mind
6 b. Purpose of mind
12 c. Features of mind
8 d. Location of mind
10 e. Questions about mind
24 2. Psuche
12 3. Mental Causation
2 4. Other Minds a. Other minds
6 b. Scepticism of other minds
18 c. Knowing other minds
12 d. Other minds by analogy
21 5. Unity of Mind
10 6. Anti-Individualism
11 7. Animal Minds
8 8. Brain
B. Features of Minds
18 1. Consciousness a. Consciousness
9 b. Essence of consciousness
6 c. Parts of consciousness
12 d. Purpose of consciousness
16 e. Cause of consciousness
15 f. Higher-order thought
15 2. Unconscious Mind
9 3. Privacy
17 4. Intentionality a. Nature of intentionality
23 b. Intentionality theories
17 5. Qualia a. Nature of qualia
12 b. Qualia and intentionality
13 c. Explaining qualia
8 6. Inverted Qualia
6 7. Blindsight
C. Capacities of Minds
8 1. Faculties
10 2. Imagination
26 3. Abstraction by mind
6 4. Objectification
30 5. Generalisation by mind
7 6. Idealisation
13 7. Seeing Resemblance
3 8. Remembering Contiguity
6 9. Perceiving Causation

424 16. Persons
A. Concept of a Person
9 1. Existence of Persons
5 2. Persons as Responsible
5 3. Persons as Reasoners
10 4. Persons as Agents
B. Nature of the Self
6 1. Self and Consciousness
4 2. Ethical Self
5 3. Self as Non-physical
13 4. Presupposition of Self
13 5. Self as Associations
8 6. Self as Higher Awareness
14 7. Self and Body a. Self needs body
2 b. Self as brain
2 c. Self as brain controller
C. Self-Awareness
15 1. Introspection
24 2. Knowing the Self
22 3. Limits of Introspection
5 4. Errors in Introspection
D. Continuity of the Self
4 1. Identity and the Self
20 2. Mental Continuity a. Memory is Self
20 b. Self as mental continuity
20 c. Inadequacy of mental continuity
6 3. Reference of 'I'
5 4. Split Consciousness
3 5. Concerns of the Self
1 6. Body sustains Self
8 7. Self and Thinking
E. Rejecting the Self
5 1. Self as Indeterminate
10 2. Self as Social Construct
6 3. Narrative Self
22 4. Denial of the Self
F. Free Will
23 1. Nature of Free Will
9 2. Sources of Free Will
3 3. Constraints on the will
17 4. For Free Will
36 5. Against Free Will
27 6. Determinism a. Determinism
5 b. Fate
12 7. Compatibilism

474 17. Mind and Body
A. Mind-Body Dualism
17 1. Dualism
16 2. Interactionism
9 3. Panpsychism
5 4. Occasionalism
7 5. Parallelism
13 6. Epiphenomenalism
11 7. Zombies
29 8. Dualism of Mind Critique
B. Behaviourism
7 1. Behaviourism
13 2. Potential Behaviour
4 3. Intentional Stance
25 4. Behaviourism Critique
C. Functionalism
22 1. Functionalism
8 2. Machine Functionalism
2 3. Psycho-Functionalism
7 4. Causal Functionalism
7 5. Teleological Functionalism
4 6. Homuncular Functionalism
11 7. Chinese Room
18 8. Functionalism critique
D. Property Dualism
10 1. Reductionism critique
13 2. Anomalous Monism
17 3. Property Dualism
8 4. Emergentism
19 5. Supervenience of mind
13 6. Mysterianism
E. Mind as Physical
34 1. Physical Mind
21 2. Reduction of Mind
19 3. Eliminativism
14 4. Connectionism
12 5. Causal Argument
4 6. Conceptual Dualism
14 7. Anti-Physicalism a. Physicalism critique
24 b. Multiple realisability
7 c. Knowledge argument
5 d. Explanatory gap
5 e. Modal argument

696 18. Thought
A. Modes of Thought
29 1. Thought
7 2. Propositional Attitudes
20 3. Emotions
19 5. Folk Psychology
28 6. Rationality
2 7. Intelligence
6 8. Human Thought
15 9. Indexical Thought
6 10. Rule Following
B. Mechanics of Thought
4 1. Psychology
4 2. Categories of Understanding
13 3. Modularity of Mind
19 4. Language of Thought
20 5. Mental Files
9 6. Artificial Thought a. Artificial Intelligence
5 b. Turing Machines
6 c. Turing Test
C. Content
26 1. Content
16 2. Ideas
20 5. Twin Earth
39 6. Broad Content
10 7. Narrow Content
5 8. Intension
D. Concepts
27 1. Concepts a. Nature of concepts
5 b. Concepts in philosophy
5 c. Concepts in psychology
10 2. Origin of Concepts a. Origin of concepts
7 b. Empirical concepts
15 c. Nativist concepts
8 3. Ontology of Concepts a. Concepts as representations
18 b. Concepts as abilities
21 c. Fregean concepts
9 4. Structure of Concepts a. Conceptual structure
10 b. Analysis of concepts
14 c. Classical concepts
22 d. Concepts as prototypes
10 e. Concepts from exemplars
16 f. Theory theory of concepts
4 g. Conceptual atomism
4 h. Conceptual priority
6 5. Concepts and Language a. Concepts and language
5 b. Concepts are linguistic
4 c. Concepts without language
E. Abstraction
21 1. Abstract Thought
22 2. Abstracta by Selection
23 3. Abstracta by Ignoring
2 4. Abstracta by Example
7 5. Abstracta by Negation
5 6. Abstracta by Conflation
40 7. Abstracta by Equivalence
28 8. Abstractionism Critique

765 19. Language
A. Nature of Meaning
21 1. Meaning
13 2. Meaning as Mental
9 3. Meaning as Speaker's Intention
30 4. Meaning as Truth-Conditions
36 5. Meaning as Verification
25 6. Meaning as Use
10 7. Meaning Holism a. Sentence meaning
16 b. Language holism
11 c. Meaning by Role
8 8. Synonymy
1 9. Ambiguity
13 10. Denial of Meanings
B. Reference
25 1. Reference theories
5 2. Denoting
11 3. Direct Reference a. Direct reference
22 b. Causal reference
11 c. Social reference
18 4. Descriptive Reference a. Sense and reference
24 b. Reference by description
11 5. Speaker's Reference
C. Assigning Meanings
8 1. Syntax
26 2. Semantics
23 3. Predicates
9 4. Compositionality
17 5. Fregean Semantics
15 6. Truth-Conditions Semantics
8 7. Extensional Semantics
17 8. Possible Worlds Semantics
12 9. Indexical Semantics
20 10. Two-Dimensional Semantics
D. Propositions
28 1. Propositions
18 2. Abstract Propositions a. Propositions as sense
7 b. Propositions as possible worlds
10 3. Concrete Propositions
16 4. Mental Propositions
8 5. Unity of Propositions
13 6. Propositions Critique
E. Analyticity
20 1. Analytic Propositions
12 2. Analytic Truths
6 3. Analytic and Synthetic
16 4. Analytic/Synthetic Critique
F. Communication
21 1. Rhetoric
4 2. Assertion
10 3. Denial
20 4. Private Language
8 5. Pragmatics a. Contextual meaning
9 b. Implicature
5 c. Presupposition
5 6. Interpreting Language a. Translation
19 b. Indeterminate translation
21 c. Principle of charity
14 d. Metaphor

210 20. Action
A. Definition of Action
9 1. Action Theory
6 2. Duration of an Action
2 3. Actions and Events
5 4. Action as Movement
1 5. Action as Trying
B. Preliminaries of Action
16 1. Intention to Act a. Nature of intentions
5 b. Types of intention
4 c. Reducing intentions
6 d. Group intentions
23 2. Willed Action a. Will to Act
4 b. Volitionism
8 c. Agent causation
19 d. Weakness of will
C. Motives for Action
9 1. Acting on Desires
4 2. Acting on Beliefs a. Acting on beliefs
4 b. Action cognitivism
21 3. Acting on Reason a. Practical reason
29 b. Intellectualism
19 c. Reasons as causes
16 4. Responsibility for Actions

197 21. Aesthetics
A. Aesthetic Experience
8 1. Aesthetics
17 2. Aesthetic Attitude
10 3. Taste
26 4. Beauty
11 5. Natural Beauty
3 6. The Sublime
B. Nature of Art
6 1. Defining Art
6 2. Art as Form
2 3. Art as Imitation
18 4. Art as Expression
4 5. Art as Language
8 6. Art as Institution
9 7. Ontology of Art
8 8. The Arts a. Music
7 b. Poetry
C. Artistic Issues
13 1. Artistic Intentions
3 2. Copies of Art
4 3. Artistic Representation
5 4. Emotion in Art
7 5. Objectivism in Art
10 6. Value of Art
12 7. Art and Morality

726 22. Metaethics
A. Value
20 1. Nature of Value a. Nature of value
15 b. Fact and value
7 c. Objective value
12 d. Subjective value
6 e. Means and ends
25 f. Ultimate value
6 2. Values a. Normativity
9 b. Valuing life
15 c. Altruism
37 d. Love
10 e. Fine deeds
17 f. Self interest
B. The Good
17 1. Goodness a. Form of the Good
15 b. Types of good
12 c. Right and good
6 d. Good as virtue
6 e. Good as knowledge
15 f. Good as pleasure
21 g. Consequentialism
5 h. Good as benefit
8 i. Moral luck
14 2. Happiness a. Nature of happiness
13 b. Eudaimonia
13 c. Value of happiness
29 d. Routes to happiness
10 3. Pleasure a. Nature of pleasure
16 b. Types of pleasure
25 c. Value of pleasure
10 d. Sources of pleasure
12 e. Role of pleasure
14 f. Dangers of pleasure
C. Ethics Foundations
9 1. Nature of Ethics a. Preconditions for ethics
13 b. Defining ethics
7 c. Purpose of ethics
26 d. Ethical theory
5 e. Ethical cognitivism
5 f. Ethical non-cognitivism
26 g. Moral responsibility
6 h. Against ethics
7 2. Source of Ethics a. Idealistic ethics
20 b. Rational ethics
29 c. Ethical intuitionism
6 d. Biological ethics
38 e. Human nature
12 f. ▄bermensch
8 g. Will to power
22 h. Expressivism
14 i. Prescriptivism
27 j. Ethics by convention
6 k. Ethics from nature

824 23. Ethics
A. Egoism
23 1. Ethical Egoism
8 2. Hedonism
5 3. Cyrenaic School
B. Contract Ethics
22 1. Contractarianism
12 2. Golden Rule
7 3. Promise Keeping
4 4. Value of Authority
5 5. Free Rider
1 6. Game Theory
1 7. Prisoner's Dilemma
4 8. Contract Strategies
4 9. Contractualism
C. Virtue Theory
45 1. Virtue Theory a. Nature of virtue
19 b. Basis of virtue
14 c. Particularism
17 d. Virtue theory critique
4 2. Elements of Virtue Theory a. Natural virtue
8 b. Living naturally
41 c. Motivation for virtue
25 d. Teaching virtue
29 e. Character
27 f. The Mean
1 g. Desires
8 h. Right feelings
4 i. Absolute virtues
14 j. Unity of virtue
37 3. Virtues a. Virtues
8 b. Temperance
23 c. Justice
12 d. Courage
9 e. Honour
18 f. Compassion
13 g. Contemplation
14 h. Respect
8 4. External Goods a. External goods
1 b. Health
17 c. Wealth
19 d. Friendship
D. Deontological Ethics
23 1. Deontology
39 2. Duty
19 3. Universalisability
19 4. Categorical Imperative
4 5. Persons as Ends
17 6. Motivation for Duty
E. Utilitarianism
32 1. Utilitarianism
8 2. Ideal of Pleasure
7 3. Motivation for Altruism
2 4. Unfairness
3 5. Rule Utilitarianism
1 6. Ideal Utilitarianism
F. Existentialism
17 1. Existentialism
14 2. Nihilism
10 3. Angst
25 4. Boredom
10 5. Existence-Essence
25 6. Authentic Self
12 7. Existential Action
6 8. Eternal Recurrence

179 24. Applied Ethics
A. Decision Conflicts
6 1. Applied Ethics
7 2. Dilemmas
4 4. Autonomy
10 5. Omissions
4 6. Double Effect
B. Moral Rights
4 1. Moral rights
13 2. Sexual Morality
33 3. Animal Rights
C. Death Issues
25 1. Death
9 2. Causing Death
31 3. Abortion
22 4. Suicide
11 5. Euthanasia

973 25. Society
A. State of Nature
24 1. A People a. Human distinctiveness
19 b. The natural life
19 c. A unified people
8 2. Natural Freedom
5 3. Natural Equality
17 4. Natural Rights a. Natural rights
12 b. Alienating rights
6 5. Original Position a. Original position
6 b. Veil of ignorance
3 c. Difference principle
B. The State
28 1. Purpose of a State
10 2. State Legitimacy a. Sovereignty
3 c. Natural authority
27 d. Social contract
27 e. General will
14 3. Constitutions
12 4. Citizenship
6 5. Leaders a. Autocracy
17 b. Monarchy
21 c. Despotism
18 d. Elites
10 6. Government a. Government
3 b. Legislature
2 c. Executive
2 d. Size of government
1 7. Changing the State a. Centralisation
1 b. Devolution
9 c. Revolution
10 8. Culture
21 8. Religion in Society
6 9. Population a. State population
5 b. Human population
C. Social Justice
29 1. Social Justice
20 2. Social Freedom a. Slavery
4 b. Freedom of belief
11 c. Free speech
7 d. Free market
33 e. Freedom of lifestyle
1 f. Freedom to leave
7 g. Social power
28 3. Social Equality a. Grounds of equality
11 b. Political equality
4 c. Legal equality
17 d. Economic equality
32 4. Legal Rights a. Basis of rights
3 b. Inalienable rights
31 c. Property rights
16 5. Right to Punish a. Right to punish
11 b. Retribution for crime
4 c. Deterrence of crime
1 d. Reform of offenders
D. Political Doctrines
5 1. Political Theory
11 2. Social Utilitarianism
9 3. Anarchism
4 4. Conservatism
35 5. Democracy a. Nature of democracy
19 b. Consultation
8 c. Direct democracy
13 d. Representative democracy
33 6. Liberalism
23 7. Communitarianism
3 8. Socialism
16 9. Communism
7 10. Theocracy
14 12. Capitalism
7 13. Feminism
1 14. Green Politics
E. State Functions
14 1. The Law a. Legal system
18 b. Natural law
6 c. Legal positivism
5 2. Taxation
1 3. Welfare provision
18 4. Education a. Education principles
10 b. Aims of education
19 c. Teaching
13 d. History study
19 5. War

934 26. Natural Theory
A. Speculations on Nature
27 1. Nature
11 2. Natural Purpose a. Final purpose
18 b. Limited purposes
14 c. Purpose denied
8 3. Natural Function
13 4. Mathematical Nature
13 5. Infinite in Nature
11 6. Early Matter Theories a. Greek matter
11 b. Prime matter
10 c. Ultimate substances
7 d. The unlimited
16 e. The One
28 f. Ancient elements
38 g. Atomism
10 7. Later Matter Theories a. Early Modern matter
7 b. Corpuscles
8 c. Matter as extension
B. Natural Kinds
20 1. Natural Kinds
9 2. Defining Kinds
9 3. Knowing Kinds
13 4. Source of Kinds
13 5. Reference to Natural Kinds
7 6. Necessity of Kinds
12 7. Critique of Kinds
C. Causation
25 1. Causation
19 2. Types of cause
5 3. Final causes
23 4. Naturalised causation
19 5. Direction of causation
5 6. Causation as primitive
18 7. Eliminating causation
11 8. Particular Causation a. Observation of causation
35 b. Causal relata
19 c. Conditions of causation
13 d. Selecting the cause
10 e. Probabilistic causation
23 9. General Causation a. Constant conjunction
22 b. Nomological causation
31 c. Counterfactual causation
29 d. Causal necessity
D. Laws of Nature
36 1. Laws of Nature
11 2. Types of Laws
8 3. Laws and Generalities
40 4. Regularities a. Regularity theory
17 b. Best system theory
13 5. Laws from Universals
6 6. Laws as Numerical
11 7. Strictness of Laws
37 8. Scientific Essentialism a. Scientific essentialism
26 b. Scientific necessity
20 c. Essence and laws
15 d. Knowing essences
17 e. Anti scientific essentialism
10 9. Counterfactual Claims
4 10. Closure of Physics
23 11. Against Laws of Nature

584 27. Natural Reality
A. Classical Physics
29 1. Mechanics a. Explaining movement
7 b. Laws of motion
25 c. Forces
5 d. Gravity
8 2. Thermodynamics a. Energy
3 b. Heat
6 c. Conservation of energy
3 d. Entropy
B. Modern Physics
10 1. Relativity a. Special relativity
5 b. General relativity
13 2. Electrodynamics a. Electrodynamics
12 b. Fields
10 c. Electrons
13 d. Quantum mechanics
5 3. Chromodynamics a. Chromodynamics
3 b. Quarks
17 4. Standard Model a. Concept of matter
10 b. Standard model
10 c. Particle properties
4 d. Mass
4 e. Protons
3 f. Neutrinos
1 g. Anti-matter
2 5. Unified Models a. Electro-weak unity
8 b. String theory
5 c. Supersymmetry
C. Space-Time
7 1. Space a. Void
11 b. Space
11 c. Points in space
15 d. Substantival space
7 e. Relational space
32 2. Time a. Time
14 b. Tensed (A) time
9 c. Tenseless (B) time
3 d. Beginning of time
12 e. Existence of time
36 f. Presentism
6 g. Eternalism
10 h. Growing block of time
19 i. Time and change
5 j. Time as subjective
19 3. Space-Time
D. Cosmology
16 1. Cosmology
8 2. Eternal Universe
10 3. The Beginning
2 7. Black Holes
3 8. Dark Matter
2 9. Fine-Tuned Universe
3 10. Multiverse
E. Chemistry
19 1. Chemistry
9 2. Modern Elements
17 3. Periodic Table
F. Biology
3 1. Biology
18 2. Life
21 3. Evolution
3 4. Ecology
13 5. Species

393 28. God
A. Divine Nature
7 1. God
34 2. Divine Nature
19 3. Divine Perfections
17 4. Divine Contradictions
6 5. God and Time
10 6. Divine Morality a. Divine morality
19 b. Euthyphro question
11 c. God is the good
16 d. God decrees morality
B. Proving God
9 1. Proof of God
35 2. Proofs of Reason a. Ontological Proof
35 b. Ontological Proof critique
6 c. Moral Argument
6 d. Pascal's Wager
20 3. Proofs of Evidence a. Cosmological Proof
29 b. Teleological Proof
28 c. Teleological Proof critique
5 d. Religious Experience
13 e. Miracles
C. Attitudes to God
4 1. Monotheism
12 2. Pantheism
4 3. Deism
16 4. God Reflects Humanity
32 5. Atheism

267 29. Religion
A. Polytheistic Religion
2 1. Animism
12 2. Greek Polytheism
8 3. Hinduism
5 4. Dualist Religion
B. Monotheistic Religion
2 1. Monotheism
14 2. Judaism
5 3. Zoroastrianism
33 4. Christianity a. Christianity
1 b. Transubstantiation
4 c. Angels
3 d. Heresy
3 5. Bible
8 6. Islam
C. Spiritual Disciplines
1 1. Confucianism
4 2. Taoism
10 3. Buddhism
3 4. Zen Buddhism
D. Religious Issues
24 1. Religious Commitment a. Religious Belief
4 b. Religious Meaning
3 c. Religious Verification
3 d. Religious Falsification
11 e. Fideism
30 2. Immortality a. Immortality
16 b. Soul
2 c. Animal Souls
11 d. Heaven
4 e. Hell
21 3. Problem of Evil a. Problem of Evil
6 b. Human Evil
4 c. Human Error
10 d. Natural Evil