All Themes in alphabetical order

Click a theme to show the ideas. Idea totals in red. Scroll down or click on an initial letter:
10 A posteriori necessary knowing what has to be, by means of experience
19 A priori analytic a priori knowledge comes from the meanings of words
18 A priori as necessities a priori knowledge is an insight into necessary truths
7 A priori as subjective a priori knowledge is the product of individual minds-
5 A priori contingent knowing what happens to be, just through thought
8 A priori denied there is no possibility of real knowledge a priori
15 A priori from concepts a priori knowledge only arises from our concepts
6 A priori from convention a priori knowledge simply reports our social consensus
17 A priori knowledge nature of knowledge acquired by pure thought
19 A priori necessary knowing what must be, just through thought
21 A priori synthetic a priori knowledge which refers to the external world
7 A priori, pure a priori knowledge as the produce of pure reason
29 Abortion morality of terminating a life before birth
3 Absolute, The some concept or quasi-divine entity that grounds reality
25 Abstract / concrete general ideas about the abstract/concrete border
13 Abstract existence existing non-causally and outside space-time
5 Abstracta by conflation treating abstractions as actually sets or universals
40 Abstracta by equivalence defining abstraction by the principle of equivalence
2 Abstracta by example defining abstract entities by offering examples
22 Abstracta by ignoring creating abstractions by ignoring some features
7 Abstracta by negation defining abstractions by specifying what they are not
22 Abstracta by selection mental acts which create abstract concepts
7 Abstracta problems difficulties in understanding abstract objects
17 Abstracta, modern examples amd principles of modern abstracta
16 Abstracta, nature of what we should take abstract object to be
5 Abstracta, need for why we might postulate non-physical objects
26 Abstraction by mind singling out properties and parts of reality for special attention
6 Abstraction, levels of possible degrees or levels of abstraction
28 Abstractionism critique reasonsto reject the abstractionist explanation
4 Acting on belief action seen as a response to beliefs
5 Action as movement treating actions as (mainly) bodily movements
1 Action as trying action is the trying to do it, not the movement
6 Action causes what triggers an action and makes it inevitable
4 Action cognitivism intention to act is a relevant belief about the action
5 Action duration fixing the start, duration and end of an action
2 Action goals having an aim or purpose for an action
8 Action theory general ideas about the nature of action
2 Actions and events relationship between actions and mere events
3 Actions explained account which makes an action understandable
4 Ad Hominem fallacy attacking an opponent's motives instead of their arguments
12 Adverbial theory of perception qualities are not objects but ways in which a perception occurs
4 Aesthetic attitude distinctive frame of mind in aesthetic experience
6 Aesthetics general ideas about the study of art and beauty
8 Agent causation special mode of causation for chosen actions
10 Agrippa's trilemma all three justification structures look hopeless
16 Altruism placing the concerns of others before one's self
1 Ambiguity what double meanings show about language
8 Analogy arguments attempting proof by comparison with similar cases
41 Analysis strategy and value of breaking down ideas and reality
23 Analysis, against it analysis is the wrong way to do philosophy
7 Analytic / synthetic distinction between real assertion and the purely verbal
15 Analytic / synthetic critique rejection of a sharp distinction between real and verbal assertion
12 Analytic propositions propositions that just seem to be about words
10 Analytic truths propositions that are true simply because of their words
4 Anarchism self-rule by citizens, and abolition of government
5 Ancient thought, historical landmarks in Greek thought, and other early cultures
6 and role of 'and' in systems of logic
4 Angels the nature of angels in theology and metaphysics
5 Angst life permeated by insecurities and meaninglessness
10 Animal minds whether animals have consciousness and reason
24 Animal rights concern with the pleasure or pain of animals
2 Animal souls whether any animals have immortal souls
3 Animalism we should be seen as whole animals, not persons
6 Anomalies in science observations which contradict current theories
13 Anomalous monism mind is a causal oddity in a physical world
10 Anti-individualism individuation of minds must also refer to externals
7 Antinomies of reason major clashes in our understanding in Kantian thought
29 Anti-realism either denial of external reality, or of its having knowable structure
20 Aporiai conflicts of thought that baffled and provoked the Greeks
8 Argument reasoning and persuasion in general
8 Arithmetic logical operations with natural numbers
2 Arithmetic, 'Baby' a very simple axiomatisation of arithmetic, to show basics
20 Arithmetic, its incompleteness discovery that axioms can't prove all truths of arithmetic
2 Arithmetic, Robinson an intermediate axiomatisation of arithmetic, to show basics
1 Art and interpretation what is involved in deciding the meaning of art works
9 Art and morality relationship between moral and aesthetic values
4 Art and objectivism possibility that aesthetic judgements can be true
8 Art as expression personal expression is the essence of art
3 Art as form form is the essence of works of art
3 Art as language art is best understood as a language
1 Art, its ontology in what sense varies types of art actually exist
6 Art, its value value of art for individuals and in society
2 Art, subjectivism aesthetic judgements as just personal
11 Artefact essence essence of objects made by creatures
9 Artificial intelligence possibility of building thinking/conscious machine
3 Artistic expression ways in which the arts express states of mind
6 Artistic intentions status of an artist's intentions in aesthetics
3 Artistic representation nature of representation of reality in the arts
3 Assertion stating something while claiming it is true
15 Associationism knowledge built by ideas forming links in the mind
32 Atheism denial of the existence of any gods
34 Atoms the lowest level of matter is indivisible parts
15 Authentic self changing one's self into something more genuine
4 Authority, its value someone who creates trust by enforcing contracts
3 Authority, natural power derived from natural superiority or strength
4 Autocracy government controlled by a single person
4 Autonomy in decisions right of individuals to control their own lives
1 Awareness logic logic that adds awareness to the logic of knowledge
30 Axiomatisation giving basic truths from which some system is deduced
25 Barcan formula formula relating possibility to existence
16 Bayes's Theorem equation showing probability of an inductive truth
37 Beauty beauty as a quality in minds and objects
5 Becoming transition from being to existence
15 Beginning, the how the universe began
12 Behavioural dispositions mind as a collection of potential behaviours
6 Behaviourism mind is no more than the sum of behaviour
28 Behaviourism critique reasons why behaviourism is false
16 Being the nature of pure being
4 Being and existence contrast between being and actual existence
6 Being and nothing how being and nothingness relate
14 Being as particular being as only found in substances or particulars
4 Being deflated denial that much of interest can be said about being
7 Being, primary concept of a mode of being prior to all others
5 Belief control controlling external factors to produce beliefs
8 Belief holism the context required for beliefs
12 Belief, cause of what triggers beliefs
27 Beliefs mental state aiming at truth (Gk. doxa)
4 Beliefs in animals whether animals believe things
13 Beliefs, basic contents and origin of foundational beliefs
10 Beliefs, elements of the components that make up beliefs
25 Beliefs, their aims the purpose or aim of beliefs
1 Benefit aim of improving life, rather than just pleasure
3 Bible, the authority of the main Christian texts
2 Biological ethics ethics as entirely arising from evolutionary needs of organisms
2 Biology scientific study of living things
13 Bivalence in reason propositions can only be true or false
6 Blindsight evidence of perception without consciousness
21 Boredom there seems to be nothing worth doing
7 Brain, the philosophically interesting features of the brain
39 Broad content meanings aren't in the head ('Externalism')
9 Buddhism attempt to rise to a pure life by elimination of desire
13 Caesar problem explain why Julius Caesar can't be a number
8 Cardinal numbers numbers relating to total rather than position
8 Cat and its tail objects contained within other objects
17 Categories general ideas about how to group what exists
4 Categories of understanding mind imposes some categories onto possible experience
23 Categories, proposed actual suggestions for structure of categories
16 Categorisation how the mind approaches putting things into categories
15 Category Anti-Realism belief that our categories can't or don't map reality
10 Category mistakes overview of confusions in attributions to things
1 Category mistakes, ontological category mistakes as result of misunderstanding reality
5 Category mistakes, pragmatic category mistakes as result of confusions in a context
11 Category mistakes, semantic category mistakes as result of confusions of meaning
5 Category mistakes, syntactic category mistakes as result of syntax errors
9 Category Realism belief that our categories can or do map reality
11 Causal argument claim that mental causation requires physicalism
26 Causation general comments on the nature of causation
6 Causation perceived instant assumption of causal relations in perception
5 Causation, as primitive causation is an unanalysable basis of nature
28 Causation, by necessity causation as necessitated by nature
19 Causation, conditions of analysis of situation that leads to an event
23 Causation, constant conjunction causation as a regular link between event-types
31 Causation, counterfactual causes explained in terms of alternative events
16 Causation, eliminating it scepticism about the whole idea of causation
19 Causation, its direction explain the past-to-future direction of causes
23 Causation, naturalised causation explained in terms of natural phenomena
22 Causation, nomological causes as aspects of lawlike behaviour
11 Causation, observation of extent of the observability of a cause
10 Causation, probabilistic causation in terms of probable consequences
35 Causation, relata categories of item connected by causation
5 Cause, final Greek view of ultimate aim as the cause
13 Cause, selecting the naming 'the' cause among the pre-condtions of events
19 Cause, types of categories of links between successive events
9 Causing death moral issues about terminating a life
1 Centralisation, political increasing control by a dominant group
25 Certainty possibility or necessity of certainty in knowledge
7 Certainty, common sense 'Moorean' certainty, that direct experience trumps any argument
9 Chance facts that seem to have no particular cause
27 Change how existence can persist even when becoming different
1 Chaotic outcome wild unpredictability of some consequences
25 Character concern with good persons, rather than actions
21 Charity assume people aim to speak truth
18 Chemistry general ideas about behaviour of molecules
11 Chinese Room counterexample of non-conscious function
29 Christianity general ideas about the Christian religion
42 Chronology, ancient events in philosophy up to 642 CE
16 Chronology, earlier European events in philosophy from 643 CE to 1600
27 Chronology, later European events in philosophy from 1601 to 1878
33 Chronology, modern philosophy events in philosophy since 1879
8 Circularity in reason line of reasoning which just leads back to its start
7 Citizenship being a full member of a political state
1 Closure of physics laws of physics can give a complete account of everything
31 Cogito critique objections to the necessary existence of a thinker
25 Cogito, The Descartes' claim that his own existence is self-evidently and necessary
24 Coherence principles of mutual support between propositions
22 Coherence truth truth is when propositions effectively fit together
8 Coherence truth critiique criticism of the coherence theory of truth
10 Coincident objects two objects that ompletely overlap
8 Commensurability in science possibility of comparison between theories
5 Commitment by predicates ontological commitment of predication
9 Commitment by quantifiers ontological commitment of 'all' or 'some'
21 Commitment in ontology nature of existence commitments
18 Commitment in ontology problems troubles with theories of commitment
11 Commitment of theories ontological commitment of serious theories
15 Communism emphasis on equality, shared resources and unity
16 Communitarianism controlling society to enable individuals to flourish
17 Compactness in logic satisfaction by satisfying the finite subsets
17 Compassion as virtue sympathetic concern for others' pain
8 Compatibilism of free will free will is possible in a deterministic worlc
14 Completeness in logic all the truths of a system are formally deducible
2 Complex numbers numbers built from square root of -1
23 Composition of objects objects seen as made up of their parts
8 Compositionality sentence meaning as built up from its components
22 Conceivable as possible if conceivable then it is possible
10 Conceivable but impossible seems conceivable when not actually possible
25 Concepts general ideas about concepts
3 Concepts and language general ideas on the relation of concepts and language
5 Concepts are linguistic claim that without language there are no concepts
18 Concepts as abilities concepts as abilities to believe, decide and reason
22 Concepts as prototypes concepts as built around typical examples of things
9 Concepts as representations concepts as mental states representing reality
10 Concepts from exemplars groups of similar observations generate concepts
5 Concepts in philosophy how psychologists tend to see concepts
5 Concepts in philosophy how philosophers tend to see concepts
4 Concepts without language possibility of concepts which do not involve language
21 Concepts, abstract general concepts not about concrete objects
10 Concepts, analysis of possibility of breaking a concept down into elements
14 Concepts, classical concepts as necessary and sufficient conditions of groups
6 Concepts, empirical concepts as derived most from experience
21 Concepts, Fregean concepts as meanings, distinct from a word's reference
15 Concepts, nativist concepts as innate or native ingredients of minds
11 Concepts, origin of general ideas on the origin of mental concepts
16 Concepts, theory theory of concepts as components of our theories of reality
21 Conceptual analysis philosophy as the analysis and relations of concepts
4 Conceptual atomism concepts are atomic, and have no internal structure
4 Conceptual dualism of mind there is one substance, but our concepts are dualist
4 Conceptual priority how concepts depend upon one another
9 Conceptual structure whether concepts have structure or are atomic
8 Conceptualism in mathematics maths is just a set of human concepts in minds
11 Conditionals general ideas about conditionals
15 Conditionals, non-truth-functional conditional truth adding to the components
6 Conditionals, pragmatics of practical conventions for uttering conditional statements
5 Conditionals, suppositional conditionals only interested in true antecedents
23 Conditionals, truth-functional conditional truth based entirely on components
6 Conditionals, types of ways to categorise types of conditionals
1 Confucianism traditional Chinese set of rules for living
14 Connectionism of mind mind is the sum of many associations/connections
27 Connectives in logic general role and status of logical connectives
3 Connectives, basic minimal connectives needed for a logic system
18 Consciousness general ideas about consciousness
16 Consciousness, cause of what causes minds to be conscious
8 Consciousness, its essence the defining aspect of being conscious
6 Consciousness, parts of different parts of a conscious mind
12 Consciousness, purpose of reasons why our minds are conscious
6 Consequence types different modes of logical consequence
6 Consequence, deductive |- following from a formula in proof-theory
15 Consequence, semantic |= fitting with the truth of some formulae
19 Consequentialism morality of actions just depends on consequences
4 Conservatism government based on cultural tradition and stability
10 Consistency in logic a set of sentences are held to be simultaneously true
2 Constants in logic terms, such as names, which have a fixed value
21 Constitution of objects objects should be understood as what they are made of
16 Constructivism in mathematics maths is entirely created by the human mind
13 Contemplation as virtue pure thought as a possible virtue
27 Content how minds internally represent reality
8 Contextual Meaning aspects of meaning which are decided by context
3 Contiguity perception linking memories by the same time or same place
14 Continental philosophy key shared characteristics of continental modern philosophy
9 Contingency facts which could be otherwise
15 Continuum hypothesis denial of a cardinality between naturals are reals
3 Contract strategies subtle ways of getting what you want from people
19 Contractarianism morality as doing favours in order to receive them
2 Contractualism morality is being able to give good reasons
4 Contradiction in logic when two statements are in logical conflict
8 Contraries could both be false, but can't both be true
7 Conventionalism in logic logic is just a set of rules and concepts agreed by people
6 Corpuscles matter is just a collection of smaller parts
11 Correspondence to facts how things are, independently of thought
32 Correspondence truth truth is a successful match between mental states and reality
25 Correspondence truth critique criticism of the correspondence theory of truth
21 Cosmological proof of God proving God's existence from the existence of nature
17 Cosmology origins and nature of the universe
10 Counterfactual claims laws as involving claims about other possible worlds
21 Counterfactuals facts in worlds different from the actual world
31 Counterpart identity there are only closely resembling possible entities
48 Counting procedure for finding the size of a group of things
11 Courage as virtue virtuous resistance to fear and danger
33 Criterion for existence what is the hallmark for deciding what exists?
3 Critical theory social theories aiming at awareness of their own context
12 Cultural relativism role of culture in shaping individual knowledge
7 Culture customs, values and habits of citizens in society
5 Cyrenaic school Greek school which made personal pleasure central
9 Dasein being as directly experienced by humanity
14 De re / de dicto modalities modes of reality, or modes of statement about it
24 Death issues value of death, especially in assessing evil
7 Decidability in logic are positive or negative answers always possible?
6 Deconstruction wisdom can only draw attention to human presuppositions
7 Defeasibility must justification ensure that nothing can defeat it?
21 Definite descriptions descriptions which seem to pick out a unique item
9 Definition, against pursuit of definition is hopeless or pointless
19 Definition, aims of what a definition is trying to achieve
23 Definition, by genus / differentia its class, and then its distinguishing feature
13 Definition, contextual definition relying wholly on facts about context
7 Definition, impredicative definition that doesn't introduce a new concept
5 Definition, ostensive definition by pointing out one or more examples
25 Definition, real give the true nature of something, not just a description
1 Definition, recursive specify one item, and a rule to produce more of them
4 Definition, stipulative definition by simply decreeing what a concept means
11 Definition, types of whether there are different sorts of definition
17 Definitions specifying one word by means of others
4 Deism belief in a remote or absent god
18 Democracy what democracy is
6 Democracy, direct decisions are made by most of the population
8 Democracy, representative the people chose a small group to govern
10 Democratic consultation government's consultation, by plebiscite or election
22 Demonstration in science proving physical facts by observation and reason
10 Denial stating something while rejecting its truth
4 Denoting the picking out of some specific thing
21 Deontology moral theories centring on the idea of duty
4 Descriptions general ideas about stating characteristics of objects
22 Descriptions, theory of definite rewriting of descriptive terms to show underlying logic
8 Desire to act desires and emotions as the main motivator of action
1 Desires the raw desire for self-indulgence
17 Despotism corrupt single leader who abuses a state
27 Determinism everything is determined, so there is no free will
2 Devolution, political dispersal of power to the people and regions
27 Dialectic approaching truth by discussion and analysis
3 Difference principle bias towards equality when designing a society
6 Dilemmas moral situations with no clear course of action
13 Direct realism we are in direct contact with reality
3 Disjunctivism justification has separate internal and external components
18 Dispositions idea of a disposition towards certain behaviour
11 Dispositions and powers relation of dispositions to underlying active powers
12 Dispositions as conditional dispositions understood as hypothetical behaviour
10 Dispositions as occurrent dispositions only exist when behaviour occurs
5 Dispositions as potential dispositions as potential states for possible behaviour
12 Divine contradictions contradictions in our concept of a supreme being
15 Divine moral decree God as the authority behind morality
8 Divine morality general ideas on God and morality
44 Divine nature characteristics of a supreme being
20 Divine perfections existence of good qualities in their purest form
16 Domain of quantification specifying the objects from which quantifiers select
4 Double effect morality of side-effects of an action
17 Dualism of mind mind and matter are two quite different substances
28 Dualism of mind critique view that dualism is impossible or incorrect
36 Duty nature of duty and its underpinnings
1 Dynamic logics logic that allows for changes in objects and properties
3 Ecology human life as part of the Earth's whole biosphere
18 Education principles principles and values in educating the young
10 Educational aims what educators should try to achieve
1 Electrons a key fundamental particle of matter
10 Elements the basic components of complex compounds
17 Elements, Greek earth, air, fire and water etc.
7 Elements, modern 92 natural elements, and some further ones
6 Elenchus Socrates' use of interrogation for philosophy
19 Eliminativism of mind there is no such thing as mind, only the brain
13 Elite rulers rule of a small group, by talent, birth or wealth
8 Emergentism of mind mind as a product of complex matter
20 Emotions pure feeling, and its role in mind function
36 Empirical arithmetic the view that mathematics is rooted in experience
18 Empirical arithmetic, against denials that mathematics is rooted in experience
36 Empiricism knowledge is essentially derived from experience
34 Empiricism, critique rejection of knowledge arising just from experience
18 Empiricism, in favour reasons for favouring the empirical view of knowledge
5 Energy universal physical stuff involved in all actions
2 Entailment in reason if P is true then Q has to be true
10 Enumerability in logic whether all formulae in a system can be specified
12 Epiphenomenalism of mind mind as by-product of matter, having no effect
3 Epistemic logic Inferences between known and believed propositions
8 Epistemic virtues values and qualities need for good justification
6 Epistemology naturalised justification is the mechanics of successful belief-formation
10 Equality, economic extent to which citizens have roughly equal wealth
19 Equality, grounds of social what can justify citizens being viewed as equals
2 Equality, legal all citizens treated identically before the law
3 Equality, natural equalities implied merely by being human
10 Equality, political all citizens having equal rights to engage in politics
7 Equivalence classes classes created by close relationships of members
6 Eristic argument as a competition rather than for truth
6 Error accounts of how human error occurs
20 Essence and laws relationship between essences and laws of nature
20 Essence as definition essence just is the successful definition of a thing
14 Essence as definition essence as what figures in a successful definition
21 Essence as explanation essence is what intrinsically explains a thing
21 Essence as necessary properties essence just is necessary properties
25 Essence for unity essence is what unifies the parts of a thing
22 Essence not necessities essence is different from necessary properties
38 Essence, individual each individual has its own distinct essence
29 Essence, nominal essence as derived from experiences of objects
16 Essence, types of distinctions about how essence should be understood
26 Essences of objects idea that objects have essences, as well as other features
14 Essences, knowledge of whether we can know essences, and if so, how
19 Essences, knowledge of how we might know the essence of an object
31 Essential and properties essence consists of a set of properties
7 Essential parts parts of objects seen as essential to it
34 Essentialism critique reasons to deny the existence of 'essences'
9 Essentials are necessary what is essential is also necessary
7 Eternal Recurrence implications of having to live the same life over and over
6 Eternalism of time all times exist together, without division into parts
23 Ethical egoism view that people should put themselves first
14 Ethics from reason pure reason produces ethical values and principles
4 Ethics, applied real life issues of moral principle
6 European thought, early landmarks of general European thought, 600 CE - 1600
10 European thought, later landmarks of general European thought, 1601 - 1878
9 Euthanasia morality of mercy-killing for the very ill
19 Euthyphro question which comes first - morality or God(s)?
17 Events what we should take events to consist of
10 Events as primitive treating happenings as basic ingredients of existence
18 Events reduced explaining happenings in terms of another mode of existence
16 Evidence experiences and facts pointing towards knowledge
9 Evidentialism justification entirely concerns strength of evidence
15 Evil, problem of reasons for the existence of evil
21 Evolution theory that life results from natural selection
24 Excluded middle propositions must be either true or false
9 Existence and essence natures as either malleable or fixed in character
24 Existence as one existence seems diverse, but actually is One
17 Existence types whether there is more than one type of existence
30 Existence, nature of what it means for things to exist
18 Existence, reason for why do things (or anything at all) exist?
10 Existential action existentialist attitude to decisions and ethics
12 Existentialism key to life is freedom and self-creation
11 Experiment in science deliberate isolation of one cause or effect
3 Explaining people modes of explanation needed for human behaviour
17 Explanation general ideas about the concept of explanation
25 Explanation aims what explanations are trying to achieve
9 Explanation as pragmatic explanation as entirely related to human curiosity
30 Explanation by causes explanation as showing the causes of events
14 Explanation by coherence explanation by showing how it fits into other beliefs
4 Explanation by contrasts using contrasting foil to home in on explanation
34 Explanation by essence explaining by showing hidden natures in things
4 Explanation by function explanation as showing a function or purpose
35 Explanation by laws explain events by showing laws imply them
32 Explanation by mechanism explanation by revealing underlying mechanisms
7 Explanation by probability explain by showing what increases probabilities
5 Explanation by proof proofs which also reveal why something is true
12 Explanation by reduction explaining by reveal grounding or foundations
2 Explanation rejected rejection of the whole idea that we 'explain' things
27 Explanation, best aim of picking the best from among explanations
10 Explanation, best, critique rejection of the possibility of 'best' explanations
31 Explanation, types of picking out different styles of explanation
12 Explanation, ultimate possibility of completely explaining anything
6 Explanation's direction why one of two related things is the explainer
4 Explanatory gap no prospect of fully explaining mind via brain
2 Expressibility in logic limits of what can be said in a logical language
19 Expressivism in ethics morality is just an expression of feelings
7 Extensional semantics giving meaning by specifying which objects the meaning includes
4 Extensionalism in logic semantic system built on reference to objects
7 External goods role of luck and possessions in the good life
7 External justification, against critiques of the external approach to justication
10 External properties external aspects that are part of a Self
18 Facts general ideas about facts
5 Facts and truths how facts relate to true sentences
3 Facts rejected denial of such things as objective 'facts'
11 Facts, types of possible different types of fact
6 Faculties of mind theory that each distinct capacity has a specific source
7 Fallacy distinctive types of recurrent error in human reasoning
4 Fallacy of composition attributing the properties of members to the set as a whole
1 Fallacy of division attributing to whole set's properties to one of its members
12 Fallibilism in knowledge beliefs can counts as knowledge even if they are not certain
5 Falsehood how to understand failures to be true
13 Falsification in science establishing that a fact or theory is not true
9 Fate our own efforts are made pointless by determinism
10 Fictional Mathematics mathematics is purely invented, and is not true
12 Fictionalism much of ontology is actually convenient fictions we create
10 Fideism belief based purely on faith, without rational argument
5 Finitism in mathematics true mathematics only concerns finite quantities
20 Folk psychology is the truth about minds found in normal speech?
26 Force whatever causes interactions between objects
8 Form as causal form as the source of an object's causal powers
8 Form as principle form as the guiding principle of an object
11 Form as unifier form as what bestows unity on an object
20 Formalism in mathematics maths is the consequences of a set of symbols
16 Foundationalism claim that knowledge foundations are possible
19 Foundationalism, critique criticisms of existence of foundational beliefs
6 Foundationalism, in favour support for existence of foundational beliefs
11 Foundations, empirical experience is the foundation for knowledge
7 Foundations, rational reson is the foundation for knowledge
8 Free logic logic with no existence commitment for the quantifiers
5 Free rider problem one who achieves maximum success by breaking contracts
28 Free will critique reasons for doubting that free will is possible
14 Free will, in favour defences of the existence of wills which are free
33 Free will, nature of What exactly a free will is understood to be
4 Freedom of belief freedom to hold religious or political views
21 Freedom of lifestyle freedom to live in whatever manner you please
4 Freedom of market freedom to engage in any trading activity
7 Freedom of speech freedom to openly express ideas
2 Freedom to leave freedom to leave a state and live elsewhere
7 Freedom, natural freedoms implied merely by being human
16 Fregean semantics giving in the manner laid out by Gottlob Frege
18 Friendship as virtue close personal relationships as a virtue
18 Functionalism critique criticisms of the functionalist theory of mind
22 Functionalism of mind mind is a causal network of functions
7 Functionalism, causal mental states are defined in entirely causal terms
4 Functionalism, homuncular mind as a team of small independent functional units
8 Functionalism, machine mind is in principle a Turing machine
2 Functionalism, psycho- minds exist as the result of brain function
7 Functionalism, teleological mind as a set of interlocking purposeful functions
12 Functions in logic elements in logical systems to create new objects
2 Fundamental types types of thing which might be foundations for reality
3 Fundamentals in ontology a possible bottom level for the structure of existence
4 Fuzzy logic logic using infinite gradations between true and false
1 Game theory analysis and maths of relationship strategies
23 General will consensus among citizens that justifies a state
30 Generalisation by mind uniting similarities in reality into single propositions
30 Geometry study of relationships of lines, points, and shapes
20 Geometry axioms formal starting points for deriving geometry
13 Gettier problem mere true justified belief doesn't ensure knowledge
5 God existence and role of a supreme being
4 God and time relationship between God, time and eternity
10 God is the good view of morality as identical with God
13 God reflecting humanity God as a projection of humanity's own image
10 Golden rule in ethics treat others as you would like to be treated
25 Good, candidates for what constitutes the highest moral value
19 Good, Form of goodness as a perfect and eternal idea
28 Goodness general ideas on the highest moral value
8 Government basic elements of a controlling social group
2 Government, executive part of government which administers laws
3 Government, legislative part of government which creates the laws
2 Government, size of size of government in relation to the people
77 Greek-English lexicon English versions of key Greek philosophical terms
8 Grounding and explanation how grounding relates to explanations
2 Grounding and reduction how grounding relates to reductive accounts
22 Grounding, its nature how we should understand the grounding relation
8 Grounding, relata of what items are related in a grounding?
10 Growing block of time past and present exist, but the future does not
20 Grue problem problem of a predicate which changes over time
16 Haecceitism indistinguishable worlds might still have different objects
20 Haecceity a special property marking a thing's uniqueness
12 Happiness as eudaimonia Greek concept of fulfilment/happiness/flourishing
16 Happiness, nature of what is the intrinsic nature of happiness?
35 Happiness, route to how can happiness be achieved?
14 Happiness, value of how important is happiness?
1 Health as virtue health as a natural good, and part of happiness
9 Heaven good place where good souls go as a reward
8 Hedonism central aim of life being individual pleasure
4 Hell bad place where bad souls go as a punishment
3 Heresy contradictions of orthodox Christian doctrine
5 Hermeneutics seeking rhetorical explanation instead of hard facts
15 Higher-order thought consciousness as higher levels of thinking
8 Hinduism Indian polytheism, including reincarnation
10 History of ideas history of human ideas and their relation to cultures
10 History, study of ideas about the study and teaching of history
8 Honour as virtue high public esteem as a virtue
21 Human distinctiveness what distinguishes humanity from other animals
4 Human error possible explanations of why human error is possible
6 Human evil possible explanations of why human evil exists
32 Human nature ethics as based on the facts about how humans are
6 Human thought what is distinctive about the way humans think
8 Humean supervenience everything supervenes on some simple base
18 Hume's Principle view that one-one correspondence is basis of numbers
13 Humour explaining the nature and sources of what is funny
28 Hylomorphism general ideas about form specifying matter
7 Idealisation simplifiying experiences to make them precise and clear
35 Idealism reality exists entirely as ideas in the mind
15 Ideas mental events which internally represent reality
25 Identity how we should understand the idea of identity
19 Identity between objects two objects turning out to be one object
13 Identity defined whether identity can be defined - and how
16 Identity in logic logical assertions that that two objects are identical
8 Identity over time, denial of objects are never strictly the same over time
18 Identity, relative identity can only ever be in respect of some feature
10 If-thenism logic is only inference without commitment to initial truths
10 Imagination forming mental pictures, esp counterfactuals
27 Immortality survival of the human soul after death
9 Implicature in conversation unspoken rules of normal conversation
6 Impossibility negative necessity - what never could be the case
8 Impossible worlds possible worlds which contain contradictions
10 Incompleteness in logic some truths of a system evade formal proof
19 Indeterminacy of translation full translation may be a logical impossibility
15 Indexical thought thought which depends on a particular perspective
11 Indexicals semantics giving meanings for terms that obviously depend on context
39 Indiscernible objects objects between which no differences are detectable
17 Indispensability of mathematics maths as a necessity for empirical investigation
40 Individuation by kind picking out things by giving their kind
12 Individuation by location picking out by location in spacetime
11 Individuation by properties picking out by a unique set of properties
38 Individuation of objects principles for picking out objects
25 Induction obtaining general truth from many instances
12 Induction and reason role of pure reason in inductive inference
31 Induction, its limits why induction cannot justify generalised truths
13 Induction's aims possible targets for inductive thinking
5 Infinite divisibility endless dividing an interval between numbers
3 Infinite regress in reason hopeless explanations which go on forever
11 Infinite, actual treating an infinite collection as a complete thing
4 Infinite, potential infinity as just not coming to an end
26 Infinite, the the status and nature of infinity as a number
8 Infinitesimals items too small to be measured
10 Infinity in nature concept of endless time or space
5 Infinity, cardinal infinity as a collection of transcendent size
1 Infinity, countable infinities that match up with the natural numbers
5 Infinity, large cardinals types of vast cardinal as set theory ascends
3 Infinity, mark of what is distinctive about infinite numbers?
8 Infinity, ordinal infinity as an unending ordered series
5 Infinity, uncountable infinities beyond the bounds of natural numbers
13 Innate knowledge knowledge that arise from within the mind
3 Inspiration knowledge without evidence or reason
12 Instrumentalism in science scientific truth is just what works in our theories
4 Instrumentalism of mind mind as a fiction created to deal with behaviour
28 Intellectualism all actions are guided entirely by reason
2 Intelligence reasoning power of the mind
5 Intension way a set of things is conceived
3 Intensional logic logic that includes meanings and concepts, as well as objects
4 Intensionalism in logic semantic system built on reference to properties
4 Intention, types of possible different types of intention
23 Intentionality theories how can intentional states be explained?
17 Intentionality, nature of what exactly is intentionality?
5 Intentions of groups possibility of joint or group intentions
3 Intentions reduced explaining intentions by more basic ingredients
15 Intentions, nature of intrinsic nature of a decisive mental state
16 Interactionism of mind mind and matter mutually affect one another
7 Intermittent objects objects which cease, and then return to existence
26 Introspection learning about our minds by looking inwards
22 Intuition direct awareness of knowledge
37 Intuitionism in ethics we have an in-built morality detector
18 Intuitionism in mathematics maths is built from intuitions and proofs
15 Intuitionist logic logic which uses 'provable' in place of 'true'
10 Invariant knowledge denial that standards of knowledge vary with context
8 Inverted qualia one stimulus causing opposite experiences
21 Is / ought no non-human values anywhere in nature
8 Islam worship one God, with Mohammed as prophet
13 Isomorphisms in logic ways in which two models or theories map together
14 Iterative conception of sets sets as a well-founded hierarchy built from scratch
13 Judaism followers of one god with a chosen people
24 Justice as virtue correct behaviour towards other people
22 Justification as coherence proposal that coherent support creates knowledge
17 Justification as coherence critique criticisms of the coherentist view
8 Justification as coherence, pro- reasons in favour of the coherentist view
13 Justification by testimony role of reports and beliefs of other people in justification
13 Justification issues areas of interest concerning justification
1 Justification logics logic that adds reasons for belief to the logic of knowledge
11 Justification requirement why knowledge needs justification
14 Justification, causal justification needs a causal link from facts to beliefs
18 Justification, contextual defence of context as vital to knowledge claims
20 Justification, external general issues about external justification
8 Justification, pragmatic justification guided by practical needs and action
5 Justification, pro-external reasons to favour externalist justifcation
23 Justification, pro-internal reasons to favour internalist justifcation
12 Justification, reliabilism reliability that is needed for secure knowledge
9 Justification, social justification entirely concerns social consensus
6 Justifying an action establishing that the correct action was taken
7 Knowing how having a skill which may be inarticulate
33 Knowledge situation of holding a set of reliable true beliefs
7 Knowledge argument qualia knowledge goes beyond physical knowledge
4 Knowledge as convention knowledge is just social convention (Gk. nomos)
16 Knowledge closure are known implications of knowledge also known?
9 Knowledge first knowledge is a basic concept, not to be analysed
5 Knowledge seeks truth sole aim of knowledge is awareness of the truth
4 Knowledge, value of importance and need for knowledge in humans
24 Language generalisations about existence of language
7 Language relativism role of language in shaping human knowledge
11 Law the system used by a government to enforce laws
14 Law, natural laws arising from the natural state of mankind
6 Laws and generalities differences between general truths and real laws
6 Laws as numerical laws of nature expressed just in numerical terms
13 Laws from universals laws seen as necessary relations between universals
42 Laws of nature nature and status of the regularities of nature
23 Laws of nature, against rejection of the very idea that there are 'laws' of nature
17 Laws of nature, best system laws are the simplest axioms that describe patterns
40 Laws of nature, regularities laws are merely patterns in physical events
10 Laws of nature, strictness whether laws are necessary, or their truth is qualified
9 Laws of thought basic axioms of human reason
7 Laws, types of possibility divisions of laws of nature into types
3 Legal positivism laws as mere human inventions of social rules
17 Legal rights what can justify giving or withholding rights
18 Leibniz's Law identical objects must have identical features or truths
16 Liberalism emphasis on rights and freedoms for individuals
15 Life what distinguishes life, and its value
16 Life, the natural quality of human life in a state of nature
1 Light movement of visible electro-magnetic photons
7 Limitation of Size sets as only limited by vastness that gives problems
5 Limits the conclusion of a converging series
23 Limits of reason extent to which our reason can reveal truth
2 Linguistic structuralism understanding mind and knowledge by studying linguistic structures
11 Living naturally stoic attitude that virtue is natural living
26 Logic, classical system of logic accepted as the modern norm
18 Logic, first-order logic where variables only refer to objects
15 Logic, history of origins of the various systems of formal logic
17 Logic, pure logic as a completely self-contained subject
32 Logic, second-order logic extending variables to predicates and relations
33 Logic, the overview broad views about different systems of logic
20 Logic, value of relative importance of logic in life and reason
13 Logical atoms reality built up from the smallest components of logic
27 Logical consequence defining when one idea logically follows another
35 Logical form structure of a sentence relevant to its logical role
5 Logical sets sets whose membership is defined by a concept
36 Logicism, critique objections to the logicism view of maths
31 Logicism, early versions first developments of the logicist idea
13 Logicism, neo- revival of logicism after much criticism
15 Logos broad Greek concept of understanding or giving reasons
31 Love role of the feeling of love in moral behaviour
24 Löwenheim-Skolem theorems group of theorems about models involving infinities
6 Many-valued logic logic using further values in addition to 'true' and 'false'
1 Mass in physics the quanatity of matter in a thing
7 Material implication truth of P implies the truth of Q
10 Mathematical induction rule to get from axioms to general mathematical truths
8 Mathematical logic logic that is used in the practice of mathematics
21 Mathematical platonism, against reasons for doubting the existence of maths entities
33 Mathematical platonism, for reasons for believing maths entities exists
30 Mathematics discovered or invented, within or outside nature
11 Mathematics by intuition mathematics is knowable directly by pure reason
14 Mathematics foundations existence of fundamentals as a basis for mathematics
13 Mathematics is not set theory denial that mathematics is just set theory
36 Mathematics is set theory Identification of mathematics with set theory
9 Mathematics, its application explanations of mathematics applying to the physical world
4 Matter as extension matter is just the occupation of space
13 Matter of an object underlying material which is formed into an object
11 Matter, ancient ancient views on basic solid stuff
26 Matter, modern modern views on basic solid stuff
21 Mean, the virtues as appropriate route between evils
26 Meaning how one thing can represent another thing
9 Meaning as mental meanings are essentially mental events
10 Meaning by role meaning is simply the role in some part of thought
15 Meaning holism meaning needs a complete language as background
10 Meaning in sentences sentences, not words, are the units of meaning
12 Meanings denied doubts about the whole idea of meaning
19 Memory memory as source and preserver of knowledge
12 Mental causation way in which thought causes events
16 Mental Files mind is like a filing system, with labelled folders
19 Mentalese minds have in-built private language
3 Mereological groups collections of individuals with a unifying concept
27 Mereological parts what is involved in being part of something else
21 Mereological sums the concept of parts treated as one concept
40 Mereological wholes the idea of summed parts as a single entity
23 Mereology formalised general theory of how parts relate to wholes
9 Mereology axioms basic principles for reasoning about parts and wholes
11 Mereology terminology technical vocabulary used in formal mereology
14 Metaphor using falsehoods to enhance understanding
18 Metaphysics as conceptual metaphysics as study of our conceptual schemes
19 Metaphysics as science metaphysics as physical science at the highest level
18 Metaphysics beyond science metaphysics as transcending natural science
14 Metaphysics, against it rejections of metaphysics as a worthwhile activity
28 Metaphysics, nature of nature of the most abstract philosophy
16 Metaphysics, possibility of possibility of abstract wisdom through pure thought
7 Mind general ideas about the mind
11 Mind, features of observing features of a mind
21 Mind, its unity unified character of the thinking mind
8 Mind, location of decided where the mind is located
6 Mind, purpose of what minds are for
10 Mind, questions about questions to be decided about the mind
12 Miracles seeing unnatural events as proof of God's existence
5 Modal argument surely mind-brain connections are necessary?
18 Modal logic general ideas about the nature of modal logic
15 Modal logic derivation rules rules which are allowed in various modal logics
4 Modal logic symbols symbols which are distinctive of modal logic
6 Modal logic systems issues concerning the varieties of modal logic
6 Modal logic terminology definitions of the main concepts used in modal logic
11 Modal logic, alethic inference from truths concerning necessity and possibility
5 Modal system B version imposing two conditions on accessibility
6 Modal system D version with guaranteed access to some world
2 Modal system K modern simple version, on which others build
1 Modal system K4 version imposing one condition on accessibility
7 Modal system S4 version imposing two conditions on accessibility
18 Modal system S5 strongest system, with three accessibility conditions
4 Modal system T version imposing one condition on accessibility
8 Modalities family of modalities that includes necessity and possibility
15 Modality from actuality all modal facts are grounded in the actual facts
34 Models in logic general features of logical models
7 Models in science theoretical structures aimed at mapping reality
13 Modularity of mind theory of separate units of the mind/brain
8 Modus ponens rule that the entailment of a true formula is also true
4 Moments of existence treating small units of time as among the things that exist
21 Monads minimal purposeful units as basic to existence
16 Monarchy hereditary or elected lifetime leader
4 Monotheism view that there is just one god
6 Monotonicity in logic if something is proved, nothing new can unprove it
5 Moral argument for God proving God's existence from the existence of morality
7 Moral luck morality of an act partly decided by luck
12 Moral motives what causes people to want to behave well
18 Moral theory general comments on the theoretical side of morality
20 Morality overviews of morality in life and understanding
25 Morality as convention morals as social rules, rather than private or true
7 Morality critique view that morality is a delusion to be ignored
7 Motivation for altruism reasons why other people's feelings matter
16 Motivation for duty reasons why someone should want to do their duty
39 Movement explanation and source of why anything moves
24 Multiple realisability lots of way to implement a thought
6 Music philosophical aspects of music
13 Mysterianism of mind we are incapable of explaining the mind-body link
6 Naïve conception of sets sets as defined by absolutely any concept
5 Naïve realism reality is just as it appears to be
30 Names general ideas about how names function in sentences
6 Names eliminated we can paraphrase names out of sentences entirely
13 Names with no object name whose object does not exist
31 Names, descriptive names imply information about the object
20 Names, referential names do no more than pick out an object
9 Narrow content meaning is inside the mind ('Internalism')
10 Natural evil possible explanations of why natural disasters occur
8 Natural function concept of what a natural object does
26 Natural kind essence essence as belonging to a particular natural kind
20 Natural kinds general ideas about natural kinds
12 Natural kinds critique objections to dividing nature into 'kinds'
9 Natural kinds defined what exactly is a natural kind?
7 Natural kinds necessity natural kinds in some way have to be as they are
13 Natural kinds reference how language terms refer to natural kinds
13 Natural kinds source what underlies the divisions of natural kinds
9 Natural kinds, knowing how and how far we can know natural kinds
6 Natural numbers the positive numbers used in counting
43 Natural purpose ultimate reason for a thing's existence
6 Naturalising reason explaining reason as part of the natural world
4 Naturalism there is nothing beyond what we call 'nature'
19 Nature everything existing within known reality
20 Nature, basis of question of the basic components of reality
5 Necessary/sufficient conditions giving the full conditions for some truth or event
3 Necessity as primitive necessities are self-justifying or self-evident
11 Necessity by convention necessity comes from linguistic conventions
11 Necessity from concepts necessity based on relations of concepts
16 Necessity from essence necessity comes from the essence of actual things
5 Necessity in explanations explanations as revealing necessities in events
22 Necessity in general understanding the concept of necessity
19 Necessity, denial of there is nothing necessary about the real world
29 Necessity, its sources general views on what gives rise to necessity
39 Necessity, logical necessity because of logic or definitions
29 Necessity, metaphysical inescapable necessity as a feature of reality
19 Necessity, natural necessary facts about the physical world
1 Necessity, normative necessities of duty or ethical requirements
6 Necessity, transcendental preconditions necessary for knowing the world
24 Necessity, types of different ways in which things must be
14 Nihilism human life seems pointless and absurd
16 Nominalism in general general ideas about nominalism
5 Nominalism in mathematics denial of the real existence of mathematical objects
16 Nominalism, class universals are classes of things
6 Nominalism, concept universals are mental concepts
5 Nominalism, mereological universals are wholes, though found in parts
9 Nominalism, of abstracta denial of the real existence of abstract entities
15 Nominalism, of universals denial of the real existence of universals
13 Nominalism, predicate unversals are really just linguistic predicates
24 Nominalism, resemblance universals are groups of resembling particulars
20 Non-being non-being as the concept contrasting with being
2 Nonclassical logics general ideas about logics which depart from standard logic
18 Non-contradiction a proposition is claimed to be both true and false
6 Non-monotonic logic logic that adjust its proofs when new premisses are added
8 not role of 'not' in systems of logic
14 Number as adjectival numbers as properties, rather than objects
3 Number definition general ideas and proposals about defining numbers
7 Number one status and nature of the number one
19 Number priority which type of numbers is the most fundamental?
7 Number zero status and nature of the number zero
19 Number, axioms for general ideas about giving arithmetic a formal basis
45 Number, Fregean Frege's view of numbers as extensions of classes
10 Number, Greek basic principles of arithmetic according to the early Greeks
4 Number, von Neumann Von Neumann's view of numbers as expanding sets
3 Number, Zermelo Zermelo's view of numbers as nested sets
23 Numbers general ideas concerning numbers
1 Numbers, imaginary numbers which are negative when squared
25 Numbers, types of the various families of numbers
30 Object nihilism denial that there are such things as unified objects
5 Objectification tendency to treat properties and concepts as objects
13 Objectivity seeing reality without a personal point of view
13 Objects in thought objects as conceptual entities used in reasoning
13 Objects over time general ideas about sameness of objects over time
18 Objects that Change how identity fares when an object's properties change
22 Objects, four-dimensional objects extend in both space and time
32 Objects, physical what distinctively unifies physical objects
12 Objects, three-dimensional objects extend in space, but not in time
7 Observation in science attempt to neutrally perceive the environment
4 Occasionalism of mind a third force (God) co-ordinates mind and matter
23 Ockham's Razor 'Do not multiply entities beyond necessity'
7 Omissions in actions harm done by a failure to act
16 Ontological dependence things that rely on other things for their existence
35 Ontological proof critique objections to proving God's existence from pure ideas
31 Ontological proof of God proving God's existence from pure ideas
16 Ontology of logic overview of what must exist to enable logic
1 Open question argument definitions failing by not resolving the problem
5 Opposites concepts held to be totally opposed to each other
7 or role of 'or' in systems of logic
10 Ordering in sets ordered sets, and using sets to describe orderings
29 Ordinal numbers numbers relating to position rather than total
18 Ordinary language aiming at wisdom by analysis of ordinary language
21 Origin as essential origin of an object is part of what is essential to it
1 Original social position situation of persons prior to socialisation
2 Other minds general ideas about other people's minds
12 Other minds by analogy knowing other minds as like our own mind
6 Other minds scepticism doubts about knowledge of other minds
17 Other minds, knowledge of how we might know of other minds
9 Paganism old polytheism, especially in ancient Greece
9 Panpsychism all matter has a mental aspect to it
11 Pantheism view that God and nature are identical
5 Paraconsistency logic which accepts a degree of contradiction
3 Paradigms in science set framework for understanding nature
5 Paradox general ideas about meeting contradictions in thought
1 Paradox fo the Preface problem with apologies in the preface of a book
6 Paradox of Achilles problem when analysing a pursuit race
4 Paradox of Berry problem with defining a number with maximum words
4 Paradox of Burali-Forti problem arising when we think of the greatest ordinal
1 Paradox of Cantor problem with the powerset of the universe
2 Paradox of Grelling ('heterological') problem with concepts which describe themselves
1 Paradox of König problem with denying that something can be defined
2 Paradox of Mirimanoff problem with extending well-founded sets
1 Paradox of Richard problem with defining a closed set of real numbers
5 Paradox of Russell problem with self-membership of a set
5 Paradox of The Heap ('Sorites') problem with defining what makes a heap
16 Paradox of The Liar problem when liars refer to themselves
2 Paradox of the Lottery problem when deciding whether your ticket will win
2 Paradoxes of time contradiction is the precise analysis of time
7 Parallelism of mind mind and matter don't touch, but run in parallel
8 Particularism there are no rules, so we must attend to details
4 Particularism in ethics morality arises from the detail of real situations
6 Pascal's Wager belief in God because it is a sensible precaution
25 Peano axioms set of arithmetic axioms proposed by Dedekind and Peano
9 Peano axioms, 2nd-order Dedekind-Peano axioms which also refer to properties
6 People, a unified how many individuals count as a single people
30 Perception process from raw experience to awareness of reality
18 Perception and inference inference is an essential part of perception
10 Perception, causal theory perception as a causal chain from world to mind
20 Perception, interpretation role of interpretation in a direct act of perception
17 Periodic Table arrangement of modern elements in a pattern
3 Persons as ends seeing rational beings as an ultimate value in actions
4 Persons as reasoners concept of a person is needed for reasoning
5 Persons as responsible concept of a person is needed for responsibility
11 Persons, their existence whether persons exist apart from human beings
28 Phenomenalism reality is just actual and potential appearances
7 Phenomenology approaching wisdom by examining human experience
2 Philosophical Logic overview of the directions of present and future logics
6 Philosophy as generalisation philosophy aims at broad generalisations
9 Philosophy as puzzles philosophy deals with a set of basic puzzles
12 Philosophy as reason philosophy explores where reason take us
11 Philosophy as transcendent philosophy takes us beyond ordinary life
20 Philosophy as worldly philosophy aims to understand the (human) world
25 Philosophy defined attempts to define the whole subject of philosophy
26 Philosophy in general general remarks about philosophy
6 Philosophy, 17th century overview of philosophy from 1601 to 1700
3 Philosophy, 18th century overview of philosophy from 1701 to 1800
3 Philosophy, 19th century overview of philosophy from 1801 to 1878
4 Philosophy, classical philosophy 410 to 322 BCE
1 Philosophy, contemporary overview of philosophy in Europe 1956 onwards
40 Philosophy, despair over view of the whole enterprise as hopeless
3 Philosophy, earlier medieval philosophy 643 to 1299
7 Philosophy, history of general ideas about the history of philosophy
11 Philosophy, hopes for optimistic views of what philosophy can achieve
19 Philosophy, invocation to encouragements to pursue philosophy
3 Philosophy, later medieval philosophy 1300 to 1470
2 Philosophy, middle modern overview of philosophy in Europe 1921 - 1955
2 Philosophy, modern beginnings overview of philosophy in Europe 1879 - 1920
4 Philosophy, pre-Socratic philosophy up to 410 BCE
3 Philosophy, Renaissance philosophy 1471 to 1600
19 Physicalism reality consists entirely of material things in space-time
14 Physicalism critique attempts to prove that mind is not just physical
31 Physicalism of mind mind is entirely physical in composition
2 Pi ratio of diameter to circumference of a circle
25 Platonic Forms Plato's separate reality of pure ideas
21 Platonic Forms critique criticisms of Plato's theory of Forms
21 Platonic Forms, partaking how particulars are said to relate to Forms
6 Platonic Forms, self-predication whether forms exemplify their own quality
5 Platonism in logic that logical entities have independent existence
6 Pleasure as an ideal ideal life for believers in pleasure
9 Pleasure, its dangers how can pleasure be harmful?
12 Pleasure, its role what is the point of pleasure?
10 Pleasure, nature of what exactly pleasure is
9 Pleasure, sources of what sorts of things can give us pleasure?
20 Pleasure, types of what types of pleasure are there?
36 Pleasure, value of how important is pleasure in life?
3 Poetry philosophical aspects of poetry
12 Points in space the minimal units that make up space
3 Political theory general ideas about theories of political principle
3 Population of humanity global issues about the size of human population
6 Populations of states appropriate size of a state's population
8 Positivism belief in science as the only route to truth
34 Possibility general ideas about what is possible
4 Possibility, combinatorial possibilities are combinations of the actual
3 Possibility, epistemic what seems to be possible, given what is known
6 Possible but inconceivable possibe despite not being conceivable
9 Possible Objects whether non-actual objects might possibly exist
31 Possible worlds existence of non-actual possible worlds
13 Possible worlds actualism proposal that only our actual world exists
8 Possible worlds as fictions possible worlds as complete consistent fictions
7 Possible worlds as propositions possible worlds as maximal sets of propositions
13 Possible worlds realism proposal that possible worlds really exist
17 Possible worlds semantics giving full meaning by specifying some set of possible worlds
26 Possible worlds, against there is no such thing as a 'possible world'
30 Possible worlds, nature of overview of what we take possible worlds to be
12 Potentiality possibilities of some specific thing
30 Powers nature of underlying powers
26 Powers and properties relation between powers and our view of properties
34 Powers as basic powers seen as the foundation of physical reality
22 Powers as derived powers as products of something more basic
22 Powers as essence powers as giving the essential nature of each thing
18 Powers critique criticisms of the idea that there are 'powers' in reality
20 Practical reason reasoning processes that lead to action
21 Pragmatic truth truth as the aim of enquiry
8 Pragmatism knowledge is what works well in practice
1 Predicate Calculus completeness that all the valid truths of PC are provable
2 Predicate Calculus PC general ideas about standard predicate logic
6 Predicate Calculus rules normal rules used in predicate logic reasoning
4 Predicate Calculus symbols meanings of the symbols used in predicate logic
1 Predicate Calculus terminology main technical terminology of predicate logic
23 Predicates in language terms attributing characteristics to things
6 Predicates in logic assigning predicates to objects in formulae
16 Predicativism maths entities only allowed if freshly defined
17 Prediction predicting events as support for a theory
14 Prescriptivism morality is our assertion of universal duties
33 Presentism of time only the present moment exists
5 Presupposition what is taken for granted in a conversation
17 Primary / secondary critique criticism of the primary/secondary distinction
11 Primary / secondary qualities dividing qualities into different types
17 Primary qualities qualities considered independent of observation
11 Prime matter the most basic matter, with no form at all
1 Prisoner's Dilemma situations where being rational brings failure
9 Privacy of mind exceptionally private nature of thought
18 Private language possibility of a solitary person having language
14 Probability asserting the degree of likelihood of a fact
16 Processes accepting purposeful sequences of happenings as existents
7 Promise keeping logic and authority of keeping promises
13 Proof by natural deduction proofs built from introduction and elimination rules
5 Proof by sequents proof were every step is a proof and not just a formula
8 Proof by tableau proof by eliminating branches on inference trees
7 Proof from assumptions proofs which add assumptions to axioms and rules
6 Proof from axioms proofs built up from some initially accepted truths
7 Proof in mathematics establishing new certainties from a starting point
8 Proof of God using reason to convince of God's existence
4 Proof systems general ideas about the different proof systems
8 Proof, conclusive securely establishing a result by precise defined steps
17 Properties as modes properties as simply ways of existing
20 Properties as sets properties are just classes of certain objects
30 Properties, as predicates properties as purely linguistic concepts
29 Properties, categorical actualised properties, rather than conditional ones
18 Properties, denial of rejection of the category of properties
14 Properties, emergent new properties only found at higher levels of existence
18 Properties, intrinsic properties that involve no other objects
30 Properties, natural properties which constitute the natural world
32 Properties, nature of what we should take a property to be
9 Properties, need for why philosophy might need the concept of a 'property'
15 Properties, types how properties might be divided into different groups
5 Property (λ-) abstraction device for referring to an expressed property
17 Property dualism mind is a non-reducible physical property
21 Property rights right to own land and personal possessions
7 Propositional attitudes attitudes to propositions, such as belief, desire, hope, regret
12 Propositional logic overview of the logical relationships between propositions
1 Propositional logic completeness there is a proof for every valid formula
2 Propositional logic soundness any formula which has a proof is a valid formula
16 Propositional Logic, axioms statements treated as true without question
18 Propositional Logic, basic theorems very useful sequents provable in propositional logic
14 Propositional Logic, derivation rules basic rules used in proofs of propositional logic
9 Propositional Logic, symbols main symbols used for propositional and further logics
16 Propositional Logic, terminology definitions of the main concepts in propositional logic
20 Propositions ideas that exist independently from any language
15 Propositions critique view that propositions do not exist
16 Propositions, support for reasons for believing in propositions
7 Propositions, types of distinguishing varieties of propositions
42 Propostions, nature of what we should take propositions to actually be
22 Psuché Greek concept of the mind/soul/life
3 Psychologism in mathematics maths only exists as human psychological states
3 Psychology general structure of the mind's operations
9 Punish as retribution punishment as giving offenders what they deserve
4 Punish to deter punishment to frighten others away from crime
15 Punish, right to what grounds the right of the state to punish
11 Pure reason idea of reason as independent of natural constraints
12 Pythagoreanism belief that numbers are the essence of reality
12 Qualia and intentionality how qualia relate to thoughts being about things
13 Qualia explained theories that might explain qualia
17 Qualia, nature of what we should take qualia to be
4 Qualities perceived aspects of properties
8 Qualities in perception nature of the characteristics we perceive
21 Quantification in logic general ideas about expressing quantities of objects
25 Quantification, plural quantifiers pick out collections, not just 'one+' or 'all'
11 Quantification, second-order quantifiyng over both objects, and features or sets of objects
22 Quantification, substitutional quantifiers range over expressions instead of objects
9 Quantification, unorthodox non-classical ways of referring to the quantity of objects
4 Quantifier, existential ∃ symbol showing a variable refers to 'at least one' object
4 Quantifier, universal ∀ symbol showing a variable refers to 'all' objects
9 Quantifiers, classical universal and existential quantifiers picking objects
4 Quantity amounts of things as a basis for mathematics
9 Quantity of an Object what gives an object its size and shape
2 Quantum theory particles are partly wave and partly particle
2 Question begging taking for granted the very thing you are trying to prove
8 Ramsey sentences procedure to reduce metaphysical commitment in theories
37 Rationalism reason as ultimate basis of all knowledge
28 Rationality mental capacity for reason and logic
16 Raven paradox problem irrelevant evidence for a general law
28 Real numbers all numbers, including those inexpressible as fractions
5 Real numbers from Cauchy defining real numbers using Cauchy sequences
11 Real numbers from cuts defining real numbers by cutting the line of rationals
29 Realism about externals commitment to the existence of a reality outside our minds
21 Reality sort of reality to which realists are committed
6 Reality's Levels reality has a structure of interdependent levels
29 Reason general role of reason in mind and living
24 Reason, its aims what good reasoning aims to achieve
15 Reason, its status importance of reason in human life
13 Reasons to act reasons have a distinct causal role in actions
6 Recollection, doctrine of knowledge as memories from a previous life
1 Reductio ad absurdum refuting by reducing to absurdity
23 Reduction in ontology explaining higher levels of existence by lower ones
21 Reduction of mind all mental events can be explained physically
10 Reductionism critique arguments against reducing mind to brain
11 Reference as direct thought connecting directly with external things
22 Reference by causal link reference fixed by a causal link to something
26 Reference by description reference is fixed by a description
13 Reference by society reference fixed by persons beyond the speaker
9 Reference by speaker reference fixed by what the speaker intends
24 Reference theories way language-terms connect with things in reality
9 Relations in logic role of terms which connect objects into relationships
3 Relations, ancestral a relation which is passed from one thing to the next
2 Relations, equivalence a transitive, symmetrical, reflexive relation
9 Relations, internal relations as intrinsic features of the things that are related
23 Relations, nature of what we should understand a relation to be
11 Relations, types of ways relations can be categorised and formalised
28 Relativism knowledge varies according to points of view
18 Relativism critique criticism of the idea that there are only points of view
4 Relativity, general gravity seen as curvatures of space-time
3 Relativity, special light and reality always depend on a frame of reference
8 Relevant logic logic which requires some relevance of antecedent to consequent
13 Reliabilism, against objections to reliabilist justification
14 Religion in Society relative roles of a government and a people's religion
23 Religious belief nature of belief in a conscious supernatural reality
2 Religious experience proving God's existence from direct human experience
3 Religious falsification whether any evidence could falsify a religious claim
3 Religious meaning whether religious language lacks real meaning
3 Religious verification whether a religious claim could be verified
20 Representation in perception theory that mind represents in order to perceive
8 Representative realism we know reality via mental representations
13 Resemblance perception seeing recurrences of properties and structures
9 Responsibility for actions treating an agent as the prime source of action
23 Responsibility, moral freedom needed for moral praise and blame
7 Revolution, political overthrow of the government by citizens
17 Rhetoric use of language for emotional influence
8 Right feelings the feelings required for a virtuous disposition
7 Right in ethics deciding the morally best action to perform
2 Right, inalienable rights that can never be given up, or taken away
11 Rights, alienation of people's choice to give up some rights
2 Rights, moral entitlement of some to be treated morally
14 Rights, natural rights which any human being must have
22 Rigid designation in identity items with fixed identity in all possible worlds
8 Rivers' continuity is a river the same as the water in the river?
6 Rule Following moulding behaviour or thought to fit some principle
8 Sameness how we should understand two things being 'the same'
12 Satisfaction in logic evaluating as True after all truth assignments are made
3 Scattered objects the identity of objects with separated parts
32 Scepticism general doubts about the possibility of knowledge
25 Scepticism critique ways of objecting to strongly sceptical claims
3 Scepticism from demons experience is virtual reality from demon/scientist
6 Scepticism from dreams apparent reality may be just a false dream
17 Scepticism from illusions our confidence in perception is undermined by illusions
7 Scepticism, types of different modes of scepticism that seem to arise
12 Science, its aims knowledge gained by experiments
13 Scientific aims what science is trying to achieve, in general
37 Scientific essentialism basics of essence as foundation of the laws
17 Scientific essentialism critique objections to essences in scientific investigation
26 Scientific essentialist necessity natural necessity deriving from essences of kinds
30 Scientific theory a generalised explanation of natural events
28 Scientism science is the way to solve philosophical problems
26 Secondary qualities qualities seeming to involve the observer
17 Self and memory relationship between the sense of Self and memories
12 Self and the body extent to which the body is essential to a Self
17 Self as associations Self is a unity formed by associating mental events
9 Self as Cartesian ego Self as a non-physical core of reason and understanding
11 Self as essential Self as the essence of a human or mind
3 Self as ethical Self as an inseparable part of moral life
8 Self as Kantian ego Self is a necessary pre-condition for experience
7 Self as meta-awareness Self as concerned with awareness of awareness
17 Self as psychological continuity Self as the continuity of our conscious existence
12 Self as psychological, critique criticisms the Self as continuity of consciousness
4 Self as spiritual Self is a distinct substance
2 Self as the brain personal identity is the same as the brain
15 Self as undetectable doubts about perception of the Self by experience
25 Self, denial of denial that there is any such thing as a 'Self'
14 Self, is persistance problems of the persistence of Self over time
4 Self, known a priori Self can be inferred to exist, rather than experienced
15 Self-evidence knowledge that is immediately grasped or obvious
21 Self-Identity relation of identity holding between a thing and itself
15 Selfishness view that people are actually motivated by selfishness
21 Self-Knowledge directly acquiring knowledge of our Selves
7 Self's internal properties internal properties possessed by a Self
28 Semantics general ideas about formal semantic theory
21 Semantics of logic logic when interpreted, rather than mere formal systems
21 Sense and reference reference language has two components
16 Sense-data, nature of what sense-data would consist of
18 Sense-data, problems difficulties with the concept of sense-data
23 Sense-data, theory theory that sense-data actually exist
3 Sense-data, unperceived the status of sense-data when not perceived
34 Set axiom, Choice axiom for a new set by sampling
3 Set axiom, Comprehension axiom saying a set exists which satisfies a predicate
6 Set axiom, Constructibility V=L possible axiom saying all sets are constructible
1 Set axiom, Empty Set axiom asserting that there is an empty set
2 Set axiom, Existence axiom that gets sets started
9 Set axiom, Extension axiom concerning what makes a set
6 Set axiom, Foundation axiom saying all sets have a preceding basis
12 Set axiom, Infinity axiom for a vast set based on successors
5 Set axiom, Pairing axiom for new sets by combination
5 Set axiom, Powers axiom for a new set from any given set
6 Set axiom, Reducibility outdated axiom saying functions reduce to basics
5 Set axiom, Replacement axiom saying the bijection of any set is also a set
3 Set axiom, Separation axiom that new sets must be separated from old ones
2 Set axiom, Specification axiom to specify new sets
3 Set axiom, Unions axiom for new sets from parts
33 Set axioms general points about the basics of set theory
30 Set Theory general ideas concerning the theory of sets
23 Set theory critique objections to the whole idea of set theory
4 Set theory paradoxes inconsistencies resulting from set theory axioms
4 Set theory, basic theorems useful simple theorems derived within set theory
19 Set theory, symbols symbols which are distinctive of set theory
40 Set theory, terminology main concepts which are distinctive of set theory
1 Sets as combinations sets as merely combinations of things with identities
29 Sets, empty / null status of a set having no members
10 Sets, infinite sets which contain an infinity of members
9 Sets, natural which sets are natural, rather than conventional
8 Sets, their existence commitment to sets as really existint entities
4 Sets, types of general ways of categorising types of set
12 Sets, unit / singleton status of a set having a single member
7 Sexual morality special moral problems of sexual relationships
18 Ship of Theseus does his ship remain if its parts are steadily changed?
7 Simples minimal small components that make up larger objects
15 Singular terms any phrase intended to pick out a single object
17 Slavery denial of all freedoms to some workers in a state
10 Social contract power derived from agreement among citizens
7 Social structure formal statement of a society's structure and rights
1 Socialism control of main beneficial institutions by government
5 Solipsism only the contents of the thinker's mind exist
14 Soul nature of the surviving part of a person
12 Soundness in logic whether all formal deductions always lead to truth
7 Sovereignty rightful power over citizens
12 Space general ideas about space
6 Space as relational space as entirely the relations between objects
12 Space as substantive space that exists in its own right
15 Space-Time relative space and time, treated as one system
8 Speaker's intention meaning meaning is what speaker's want to communicate
13 Species dividing living things into distinct groups
18 Species essence essence for animals is the species they belong to
4 Split consciousness problems with the possibility of dividing consciousness or brain
22 State, its purpose reasons why a people forms itself into a state
8 States of Affairs reality as a collection of complex situations
38 Statue and clay united objects with separate aspects
5 Strict Implication it can never be that P is true and Q is false
3 String theory vibrating strings explain all fields and particles
4 Structural relations relations that build the structure of existences
23 Structuralism critique objections to structuralism about mathematics
33 Structuralism in mathematics general ideas concerning the structuralist approach
13 Structuralism, nominalist structuralism denying real objects or real structures
12 Structuralism, platonist structuralism with real objects or real structures
11 Structuralism, varieties of proposed options for how to understand structuralism
15 Structure of objects general ideas about how objects must be structured
7 Stuff, mixed general masses with more than one ingredient
17 Stuff, pure general masses which are fairly homogeneous
21 Subjectivism knowledge is entirely 'down to the individual'
38 Substance general ideas about notion of unified substances
20 Substance critique objections to the very concept of substances
34 Substance defined attempts to define what a substance consists of
3 Substance, end of passing-away of a substance or object
6 Substance, need for why we need the concept of substance
9 Substance, start of coming-to-be of a substance or object
20 Substance, types of varieties of entity that can count as substances
22 Substratum an object's underlying aspect, apart from surface features
10 Successive things things which need time in order to exist
20 Sufficient reason claim that there is a reason for everything
20 Suicide morality of a person taking their own life
6 Superman / übermensch idea that some people are superior to social morality
21 Supervaluation for vagueness narrowing down the vagueness
19 Supervenience of mind total mapping of thoughts onto brain events
14 Supervenience, nature of defining and elucidating supervenience
22 Supervenience, significance what should be inferred from a supervenience
9 Supervenience, types of distinguishing different forms of supervenience
11 Syllogisms of Aristotle Aristotle's original account of formal syllogistic logic
13 Syllogistic Logic general ideas about formal arguments in syllogism form
7 Synonymy whether two items can have identical meaning
4 Syntax purely structural or grammatical features of language
7 Tabula rasa 'blank page' - minds begin with no knowledge
4 Taoism suppress desire and reestablish unity with the cosmos
5 Taste nature and status of good taste
2 Tautological truth sentences held to be true in all circumstances
4 Taxation rights and extent of government taking citizens' wealth
19 Teaching virtues and principles of good teaching
22 Teleological proof critique denying that order and harmony prove God
24 Teleological proof of God proving God's existence from natural order and harmony
8 Temperance as virtue restraint and rational self-control as a virtue
3 Temporal logic Inferences across past, present and future
21 Temporal parts things have parts in time, as they do in space
5 Term logic Sommers's modern updating of syllogistic logic
7 Theocracy rule by a religious group
9 Theories in logic complete sets of propositions derived from some start
4 Theory holism in science theories can only be grasped as part of the whole
29 Thought intentional activity of the mind
5 Thought experiments imagining a situation to explore the principles involved
32 Time general ideas about time
17 Time, and change relationship between time and physical change
5 Time, as subjective time as a feature of human consciousness
2 Time, beginning of whether time has a beginning
13 Time, existence of whether time has independent existence
14 Time, tensed (A) the A-series, with the present as a distinctive moment
9 Time, tenseless (B) the B-series, of equal times, with no past-present-future
3 Tracking facts hallmark of knowledge is tracking facts if they shift
2 Transcendental argument backwards reasoning to accepting presuppositions
4 Translation expressing meanings of one language in another language
1 Transubstantiation properties of bread and wine survive consumption
30 Transworld identity can possible things be the same as actual things?
36 Tropes the principles and concepts of trope theory
22 Tropes critique arguments against the existence of tropes
27 Truth whether truth exists, and what it is in general
7 Truth and metalanguage using a separate language to define truth
18 Truth and satisfaction 'satisfaction' as a means of defining truth
7 Truth as minimal truth defined formally, without ontology
12 Truth as redundant truth is an unnecessary meaningless concept
35 Truth as semantic significance of formal defintions of linguistic truth
23 Truth bearers sorts of items capable of truth and falsehood
26 Truth by Tarski truth defined for formal languages, using 'satisfaction'
25 Truth definition question of whether truth can be defined, and how
31 Truth deflated truth has no nature, and refers to nothing
21 Truth makers general ideas about what determines truths
9 Truth rejected denial of either meaning or content to the concept of truth
9 Truth tables displaying logical relations in terms of true and false
34 Truth, axiomatic theories theories of truth built from a set of axioms
6 Truth, formal, in logic role of truth in various systems of formal logic
3 Truth, FS axioms of Friedman-Sheard axiomatisation of truth
13 Truth, its value why anyone might desire truth
6 Truth, KF axioms of Kripke-Feferman axiomatisation of truth
20 Truth, logical statements held to be true because of a logic system
12 Truth, subjective no truth, apart from the way individuals see things
7 Truth, uses of how 'truth' is used in thought and enquiry
16 Truth-conditional semantics giving meaning by specifying how sentences would be true
29 Truth-conditions meaning general idea that meaning is the situation making a sentence true
9 Truthmaker maximalism there cannot be a truth which doesn't have a truthmaker
11 Truthmaker necessitarianism makers that ground truths also force them to be true
16 Truthmakers, against opposing the claim that all truths have truthmakers
8 Truthmakers, for supporting the idea that all truths have truthmakers
11 Truthmaking and correspondence relation of truth-making to the correspondence theory of truth
7 Truthmaking by Being truths supervene on how things actually are
8 Truthmaking by objects truths are made true by some sort of object
4 Truthmaking by states truths are made true by some state of affairs
2 Truthmaking for future how truths about the future can be made true now
3 Truthmaking for generalities how general truths are made true
10 Truthmaking for modality how truths of necessity and possibility are made true
9 Truthmaking for negatives how negative truths can have truthmakers
6 Truthmaking for past how truths about the past can be made true now
11 Truthmaking relation how truths relate to their truthmakers
5 Turing machines theoretical machine that implements thinking
6 Turing test possibility of a machine passing itself as human
2 Twentieth century thought landmarks of general European thought, 1879 - 2000
20 Twin Earth we may not know what we mean by 'water'
20 Two-dimensional semantics giving meaning by possible worlds with two separate components
11 Type Identity being identical in category
15 Type theory in logicism theory that maths is a hierarchy of set types
13 Unconscious mind workings of mind hidden from consciousness
39 Understanding knowledge of sources, causes and explanations
2 Unfairness problem of unequal distribution of pleasure or pain
10 Unification as conceptual unification of objects as only occurring in our minds
22 Unification as intrinsic unification of an object by some intrinsic aspect of it
18 Unifying aggregates whether a mere assemblage of parts can be unified
3 Unique cosmos whether there may be other universes
20 Units a series of isolated 'ones' on which counting is built
36 Universalisability seeing rules for action as universal guidelines
38 Universals single concepts applying to many things
5 Universals as concepts universals taken to exist just as mental features
12 Universals, instantiated universals only existing in actual things
22 Universals, need for things which only universals seem to explain
12 Universals, uninstantiated universals existing apart from their actual instances
6 Unlimited, the one substance from which everything comes
25 Use theory of meaning meaning of language is its use
30 Utilitarianism belief that good is maximising happiness
1 Utilitarianism, ideal maximising ideal goods for everyone
2 Utilitarianism, rule doing what generally leads to increased happiness
5 Utilitarianism, social maximum happiness as the aim of government
28 Vague objects distinct objects with uncertain boundaries
9 Vagueness as epistemic vagueness arising from our imprecise knowledge
15 Vagueness as semantic vagueness as indecision about word meanings
12 Vagueness of reality treating some aspects of reality as inherently vague
6 Vagueness, degrees of placing values on degrees of vagueness
26 Value what is desirability or worth in something?
7 Value of life how and why we might value life itself
9 Value, objective intrinsic desirability or worth in things
14 Value, subjective desirability or worth bestowed on things by minds
27 Value, ultimate what is most desirable or worthy
19 Variables in logic symbols which do not yet have a determined value
2 Veil of ignorance choosing a society in ignorance of one's role
38 Verificationism in meaning meaning is tied to observation and verification
7 Verisimilitude process of getting closer to the truth
16 Virtue theory critique reasons against virtue theory
18 Virtue, its basis foundation and justification for belief in virtues
41 Virtue, motivation for why people might want to be virtuous
4 Virtue, natural some virtue is born in us
42 Virtue, nature of morality as aiming to produce good persons
23 Virtue, teaching it whether people can be taught to be virtuous
13 Virtue, unity of all virtues are variants of a single thing
32 Virtues qualities considered to make a person excellent
4 Virtues, absolute virtues that have no compromise or mean
2 Volitionism choosing to act is sufficient to perform an action
11 War government's right to wage war on other states
18 Weakness of will failing to perform the action which is judged best
16 Wealth as virtue possession of money as a possible virtue
1 Welfare,social government's help for weaker members of the state
21 Will to act mental initiation of an action
1 Will to Power values arise from every creature's desire for power
42 Wisdom, nature of defining and explaining the nature of true wisdom
23 Wise people sort of character traits which accompany wisdom
3 Zen Buddhism achieve radiant wordless enlightenment by meditation
11 Zombies possible complete human, but lacking awareness
4 Zoroastrianism ancient Persian, with one god, and Zoroaster as prophet