### All the ideas for 'Posthumous notes', 'Parts' and 'fragments/reports'

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71 ideas

###### 1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 1. Nature of Analysis
 12865 Analytic philosophers may prefer formal systems because natural language is such mess [Simons]
###### 4. Formal Logic / G. Formal Mereology / 1. Mereology
 12815 Classical mereology doesn't apply well to the objects around us [Simons]
 12832 Complement: the rest of the Universe apart from some individual, written x-bar [Simons]
 12834 Criticisms of mereology: parts? transitivity? sums? identity? four-dimensional? [Simons]
 12819 A 'part' has different meanings for individuals, classes, and masses [Simons]
###### 4. Formal Logic / G. Formal Mereology / 2. Terminology of Mereology
 12822 Proper or improper part: x < y, 'x is (a) part of y' [Simons]
 12823 Overlap: two parts overlap iff they have a part in common, expressed as 'x o y' [Simons]
 12824 Disjoint: two individuals are disjoint iff they do not overlap, written 'x | y' [Simons]
 12827 Difference: the difference of individuals is the remainder of an overlap, written 'x - y' [Simons]
 12825 Product: the product of two individuals is the sum of all of their overlaps, written 'x · y' [Simons]
 12828 General sum: the sum of objects satisfying some predicate, written σx(Fx) [Simons]
 12826 Sum: the sum of individuals is what is overlapped if either of them are, written 'x + y' [Simons]
 12829 General product: the nucleus of all objects satisfying a predicate, written πx(Fx) [Simons]
 12830 Universe: the mereological sum of all objects whatever, written 'U' [Simons]
 12831 Atom: an individual with no proper parts, written 'At x' [Simons]
 12844 Dissective: stuff is dissective if parts of the stuff are always the stuff [Simons]
###### 4. Formal Logic / G. Formal Mereology / 3. Axioms of Mereology
 12813 Two standard formalisations of part-whole theory are the Calculus of Individuals, and Mereology [Simons]
 12816 Classical mereology doesn't handle temporal or modal notions very well [Simons]
 12821 The part-relation is transitive and asymmetric (and thus irreflexive) [Simons]
 18847 Each wheel is part of a car, but the four wheels are not a further part [Simons]
###### 4. Formal Logic / G. Formal Mereology / 4. Groups
 12846 A 'group' is a collection with a condition which constitutes their being united [Simons]
 12848 The same members may form two groups [Simons]
 12861 'The wolves' are the matter of 'the pack'; the latter is a group, with different identity conditions [Simons]
###### 5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 1. Naming / a. Names
 12876 Philosophy is stuck on the Fregean view that an individual is anything with a proper name [Simons]
###### 5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 6. Plural Quantification
 12845 Some natural languages don't distinguish between singular and plural [Simons]
###### 6. Mathematics / B. Foundations for Mathematics / 3. Axioms for Geometry
 13007 Archimedes defined a straight line as the shortest distance between two points [Archimedes, by Leibniz]
###### 7. Existence / B. Change in Existence / 1. Nature of Change
 12838 Four-dimensional ontology has no change, since that needs an object, and time to pass [Simons]
 12842 There are real relational changes, as well as bogus 'Cambridge changes' [Simons]
###### 7. Existence / B. Change in Existence / 2. Processes
 12841 I don't believe in processes [Simons]
 12836 Fans of process ontology cheat, since river-stages refer to 'rivers' [Simons]
###### 7. Existence / B. Change in Existence / 3. Moments
 12881 A smiling is an event with causes, but the smile is a continuant without causes [Simons]
 12880 Moments are things like smiles or skids, which are founded on other things [Simons]
 12883 Moving disturbances are are moments which continuously change their basis [Simons]
 12882 A wave is maintained by a process, but it isn't a process [Simons]
###### 7. Existence / B. Change in Existence / 4. Events / a. Nature of events
 12840 I do not think there is a general identity condition for events [Simons]
###### 7. Existence / B. Change in Existence / 4. Events / b. Events as primitive
 12839 Relativity has an ontology of things and events, not on space-time diagrams [Simons]
###### 7. Existence / C. Structure of Existence / 4. Ontological Dependence
 12879 Independent objects can exist apart, and maybe even entirely alone [Simons]
###### 7. Existence / C. Structure of Existence / 8. Stuff / a. Pure stuff
 12847 Mass nouns admit 'much' and 'a little', and resist 'many' and 'few'. [Simons]
 12863 Mass terms (unlike plurals) are used with indifference to whether they can exist in units [Simons]
 12862 Gold is not its atoms, because the atoms must be all gold, but gold contains neutrons [Simons]
###### 7. Existence / C. Structure of Existence / 8. Stuff / b. Mixtures
 12858 Mixtures disappear if nearly all of the mixture is one ingredient [Simons]
 12859 A mixture can have different qualities from its ingredients. [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 5. Individuation / a. Individuation
 12850 To individuate something we must pick it out, but also know its limits of variation [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 5. Individuation / e. Individuation by kind
 12860 Sortal nouns for continuants tell you their continuance- and cessation-conditions [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 1. Unifying an Object / a. Intrinsic unification
 12886 A whole requires some unique relation which binds together all of the parts [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 3. Unity Problems / b. Cat and its tail
 12835 Does Tibbles remain the same cat when it loses its tail? [Simons]
 12857 Tibbles isn't Tib-plus-tail, because Tibbles can survive its loss, but the sum can't [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 3. Unity Problems / d. Coincident objects
 12820 Without extensional mereology two objects can occupy the same position [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 5. Composition of an Object
 12866 Composition is asymmetric and transitive [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 6. Constitution of an Object
 12867 A hand constitutes a fist (when clenched), but a fist is not composed of an augmented hand [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / a. Parts of objects
 12864 We say 'b is part of a', 'b is a part of a', 'b are a part of a', or 'b are parts of a'. [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / b. Sums of parts
 12814 Classical mereology says there are 'sums', for whose existence there is no other evidence [Simons]
 12817 'Mereological extensionality' says objects with the same parts are identical [Simons]
 12833 If there are c atoms, this gives 2^c - 1 individuals, so there can't be just 2 or 12 individuals [Simons]
 12849 Sums are more plausible for pluralities and masses than they are for individuals [Simons]
 12877 Sums of things in different categories are found within philosophy. [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / c. Wholes from parts
 12888 The wholeness of a melody seems conventional, but of an explosion it seems natural [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 5. Essence as Kind
 12871 Objects have their essential properties because of the kind of objects they are [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 7. Essence and Necessity / b. Essence not necessities
 12870 We must distinguish the de dicto 'must' of propositions from the de re 'must' of essence [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 11. Essence of Artefacts
 12873 Original parts are the best candidates for being essential to artefacts [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 12. Essential Parts
 12874 An essential part of an essential part is an essential part of the whole [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 4. Four-Dimensionalism
 12837 Four dimensional-objects are stranger than most people think [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 7. Intermittent Objects
 12856 Intermittent objects would be respectable if they occurred in nature, as well as in artefacts [Simons]
 12885 Objects like chess games, with gaps in them, are thereby less unified [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 9. Ship of Theseus
 12854 An entrepreneur and a museum curator would each be happy with their ship at the end [Simons]
 12855 The 'best candidate' theories mistakenly assume there is one answer to 'Which is the real ship?' [Simons]
###### 9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 12. Origin as Essential
 12872 The zygote is an essential initial part, for a sexually reproduced organism [Simons]
###### 10. Modality / E. Possible worlds / 3. Transworld Objects / a. Transworld identity
 12889 The limits of change for an individual depend on the kind of individual [Simons]
###### 11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 3. Idealism / d. Absolute idealism
 21971 Transcendental philosophy is the subject becoming the originator of unified reality [Kant]
###### 20. Action / A. Definition of Action / 2. Duration of an Action
 12843 With activities if you are doing it you've done it, with performances you must finish to have done it [Simons]
###### 21. Aesthetics / B. Nature of Art / 8. The Arts / a. Music
 12875 One false note doesn't make it a performance of a different work [Simons]