Combining Texts

All the ideas for 'The Science of Knowing (Wissenschaftslehre) [1st ed]', 'Knowledge' and 'The Spirit of the Laws (rev. 1757)'

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70 ideas

2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 5. Objectivity
Fichte's subjectivity struggles to then give any account of objectivity [Pinkard on Fichte]
5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 2. Logical Connectives / c. not
Normativity needs the possibility of negation, in affirmation and denial [Fichte, by Pinkard]
10. Modality / C. Sources of Modality / 4. Necessity from Concepts
Necessary truths from basic assertion and negation [Fichte, by Pinkard]
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 3. Idealism / b. Transcendental idealism
Fichte's logic is much too narrow, and doesn't deduce ethics, art, society or life [Schlegel,F on Fichte]
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 3. Idealism / d. Absolute idealism
Fichte's key claim was that the subjective-objective distinction must itself be subjective [Fichte, by Pinkard]
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 3. Reliabilism / a. Reliable knowledge
Belief is knowledge if it is true, certain, and obtained by a reliable process [Ramsey]
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 4. Other Minds / a. Other minds
We only see ourselves as self-conscious and rational in relation to other rationalities [Fichte]
16. Persons / B. Nature of the Self / 4. Presupposition of Self
The Self is the spontaneity, self-relatedness and unity needed for knowledge [Fichte, by Siep]
Novalis sought a much wider concept of the ego than Fichte's proposal [Novalis on Fichte]
The self is not a 'thing', but what emerges from an assertion of normativity [Fichte, by Pinkard]
16. Persons / B. Nature of the Self / 6. Self as Higher Awareness
Consciousness of an object always entails awareness of the self [Fichte]
18. Thought / A. Modes of Thought / 6. Judgement / a. Nature of Judgement
Judgement is distinguishing concepts, and seeing their relations [Fichte, by Siep]
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / d. Subjective value
Fichte's idea of spontaneity implied that nothing counts unless we give it status [Fichte, by Pinkard]
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / j. Ethics by convention
True goodness is political, and consists of love of and submission to the laws [Montesquieu]
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / b. The natural life
Men do not desire to subjugate one another; domination is a complex and advanced idea [Montesquieu]
Primitive people would be too vulnerable and timid to attack anyone, so peace would reign [Montesquieu]
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / c. A unified people
People are drawn into society by needs, shared fears, pleasure, and knowledge [Montesquieu]
People are guided by a multitude of influences, from which the spirit of a nation emerges [Montesquieu]
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 3. Original Position / b. Veil of ignorance
The rich would never submit to a lottery deciding which part of their society should be slaves [Montesquieu]
25. Society / B. The State / 1. Purpose of a State
All states aim at preservation, and then have distinctive individual purposes [Montesquieu]
25. Society / B. The State / 5. Leaders / a. Autocracy
The natural power of a father suggests rule by one person, but that authority can be spread [Montesquieu]
25. Society / B. The State / 5. Leaders / b. Monarchy
Ambition is good in a monarchy, because the monarch can always restrain it [Montesquieu]
The nobility are an indispensable part of a monarchy [Montesquieu]
Monarchs must not just have links to the people; they need a body which maintains the laws [Montesquieu]
In monarchies, men's actions are judged by their grand appearance, not their virtues [Montesquieu]
In a monarchy, the nobility must be hereditary, to bind them together [Montesquieu]
Monarchies can act more quickly, because one person is in charge [Montesquieu]
25. Society / B. The State / 5. Leaders / c. Despotism
Despots are always lazy and ignorant, so they always delegate their power to a vizier [Montesquieu]
Despotism and honour are incompatible, because honour scorns his power, and lives by rules [Montesquieu]
A despot's agents must be given power, so they inevitably become corrupt [Montesquieu]
The will of a despot is an enigma, so magistrates can only follow their own will [Montesquieu]
Tyranny is either real violence, or the imposition of unpopular legislation [Montesquieu]
25. Society / B. The State / 5. Leaders / d. Elites
If the nobility is numerous, the senate is the artistocracy, and the nobles are a democracy [Montesquieu]
Aristocracy is democratic if they resemble the people, but not if they resemble the monarch [Montesquieu]
Great inequality between aristocrats and the rest is bad - and also among aristocrats themselves [Montesquieu]
25. Society / B. The State / 6. Government / a. Government
A government has a legislature, an international executive, and a domestic executive [Montesquieu]
If a government is to be preserved, it must first be loved [Montesquieu]
25. Society / B. The State / 6. Government / b. Legislature
The judiciary must be separate from the legislature, to avoid arbitrary power [Montesquieu]
25. Society / B. The State / 8. Religion in Society
The clergy are essential to a monarchy, but dangerous in a republic [Montesquieu]
Religion has the most influence in despotic states, and reinforces veneration for the ruler [Montesquieu]
Religion can support the state when the law fails to do so [Montesquieu]
French slavery was accepted because it was the best method of religious conversion [Montesquieu]
25. Society / B. The State / 9. Population / a. State population
In a large republic there is too much wealth for individuals to manage it [Montesquieu]
In small republics citizens identify with the public good, and abuses are fewer [Montesquieu]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 2. Social Freedom / a. Slavery
Slaves are not members of the society, so no law can forbid them to run away [Montesquieu]
The demand for slavery is just the masters' demand for luxury [Montesquieu]
Slavery is entirely bad; the master abandons the virtues, and they are pointless in the slave [Montesquieu]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 2. Social Freedom / c. Free speech
Freedom of speech and writing, within the law, is essential to preserve liberty [Montesquieu]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 2. Social Freedom / e. Freedom of lifestyle
Freedom in society is ability to do what is right, and not having to do what is wrong [Montesquieu]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 3. Social Equality / a. Grounds of equality
No one even thinks of equality in monarchies and despotism; they all want superiority [Montesquieu]
Equality is not command by everyone or no one, but command and obedience among equals [Montesquieu]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 3. Social Equality / b. Political equality
Democracy is corrupted by lack of equality, or by extreme equality (between rulers and ruled) [Montesquieu]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 3. Social Equality / d. Economic equality
Some equality can be achieved by social categories, combined with taxes and poor relief [Montesquieu]
Democracies may sometimes need to restrict equality [Montesquieu]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 5. Right to Punish / a. Right to punish
The death penalty is permissible, because its victims enjoyed the protection of that law [Montesquieu]
If religion teaches determinism, penalties must be severe; if free will, then that is different [Montesquieu]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / a. Nature of democracy
If deputies represent people, they are accountable, but less so if they represent places [Montesquieu]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / b. Consultation
The fundamental laws of a democracy decide who can vote [Montesquieu]
It is basic to a democracy that the people themselves must name their ministers [Montesquieu]
Voting should be public, so the lower classes can be influenced by the example of notable people [Montesquieu]
All citizens (apart from the very humble poor) should choose their representatives [Montesquieu]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / c. Direct democracy
A democratic assembly must have a fixed number, to see whether everyone has spoken [Montesquieu]
In a democracy the people should manage themselves, and only delegate what they can't do [Montesquieu]
25. Society / E. State Functions / 1. The Law / b. Natural law
Prior to positive laws there is natural equity, of obedience, gratitude, dependence and merit [Montesquieu]
Sensation gives animals natural laws, but knowledge can make them break them [Montesquieu]
25. Society / E. State Functions / 4. Education / b. Aims of education
In monarchies education ennobles people, and in despotisms it debases them [Montesquieu]
25. Society / E. State Functions / 4. Education / c. Teaching
Teaching is the best practice of the general virtue that leads us to love everyone [Montesquieu]
25. Society / E. State Functions / 5. War
The only right victors have over captives is the protection of the former [Montesquieu]
26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 1. Nature
Fichte reduces nature to a lifeless immobility [Schlegel,F on Fichte]
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 8. Scientific Essentialism / c. Essence and laws
Laws are the necessary relations that derive from the nature of things [Montesquieu]