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8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 13. Tropes / b. Critique of tropes

[arguments against the existence of tropes]

22 ideas
Trope theorists cannot explain how tropes resemble each other [Russell, by Mumford]
Objects are not bundles of tropes (which are ways things are, not parts of things) [Martin,CB]
Trope theory needs extra commitments, to symmetry and non-transitivity, unless resemblance is exact [Armstrong]
If properties and relations are particulars, there is still the problem of how to classify and group them [Armstrong]
Trope theory needs a primitive notion for what unites some tropes [Lewis]
Trope theory (unlike universals) needs a primitive notion of being duplicates [Lewis]
Tropes need a similarity primitive, so they cannot be used to explain similarity [Lewis]
More than one trope (even identical ones!) can occupy the same location [Daly]
If tropes are linked by the existence of concurrence, a special relation is needed to link them all [Daly]
Tropes can overlap, and shouldn't be splittable into parts [Oliver]
The supporters of 'tropes' treat objects as bundles of tropes, when I think objects 'possess' properties [Heil]
If abstract terms are sets of tropes, 'being a unicorn' and 'being a griffin' turn out identical [Loux]
Tropes have existence independently of any entities [Lowe]
Tropes cannot have clear identity-conditions, so they are not objects [Lowe]
How can tropes depend on objects for their identity, if objects are just bundles of tropes? [Lowe]
Does a ball snug in plaster have one trope, or two which coincide? [Lowe]
Why cannot a trope float off and join another bundle? [Lowe]
If tropes are in space and time, in what sense are they abstract? [Oderberg]
A colour-trope cannot be simple (as required), because it is spread in space, and so it is complex [Moreland]
In 'four colours were used in the decoration', colours appear to be universals, not tropes [Moreland]
How do a group of resembling tropes all resemble one another in the same way? [Macdonald,C]
Trope Nominalism is the only nominalism to introduce new entities, inviting Ockham's Razor [Macdonald,C]