structure for 'Metaethics'    |     alphabetical list of themes    |     expand these ideas

22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / b. Rational ethics

[pure reason produces ethical values and principles]

25 ideas
The Soul reasons about the Right, so there must be some permanent Right about which it reasons [Plotinus]
For humans good is accordance with reason, and bad is contrary to reason. [Aquinas]
We seek our own advantage, and virtue is doing this rationally [Spinoza]
Men only agree in nature if they are guided by reason [Spinoza]
If our ideas were wholly adequate, we would have no concept of evil [Spinoza]
We can demand a reason for any moral rule [Locke]
Pursuit of happiness is the highest perfection of intellectual nature [Locke]
Morality can be demonstrated, because we know the real essences behind moral words [Locke]
Rational morality is OK for brainy people, but ordinary life can't rely on that [Rousseau]
Kant united religion and philosophy, by basing obedience to law on reason instead of faith [Taylor,R on Kant]
The categorical imperative says nothing about what our activities and ends should be [MacIntyre on Kant]
Only human reason can confer value on our choices [Kant, by Korsgaard]
Reason can be vicious, and great crimes have to be rational [Schopenhauer]
To deduce morality from reason is blasphemy, because it is holy, and far above reason [Schopenhauer]
Philosophy grasps the limits of human reason, and values are beyond it [Nietzsche]
Intellect is tied to morality, because it requires good memory and powerful imagination [Nietzsche]
De Sade said it was impossible to rationally argue against murder [Adorno/Horkheimer]
Morality isn't based on reason; moral indignation is quite unlike disapproval of irrationality [Frankfurt]
The failure of Enlightenment attempts to justify morality will explain our own culture [MacIntyre]
Euripides's Medea is a key case of reason versus the passions [Annas]
Reason and morality do not coincide; immorality can be reasonable, with an ideology [Kekes]
Practical reason is not universal and impersonal, because it depends on what success is [Kekes]
If morality has to be rational, then moral conflicts need us to be irrational and immoral [Kekes]
Maybe final value rests on the extrinsic property of being valued by a rational agent [Korsgaard, by Orsi]
We don't condemn people for being bad at reasoning [Finlayson]