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9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 2. Substance / c. Types of substance

[varieties of entity that can count as substances]

20 ideas
Plato's holds that there are three substances: Forms, mathematical entities, and perceptible bodies [Plato, by Aristotle]
Speusippus suggested underlying principles for every substance, and ended with a huge list [Speussipus, by Aristotle]
Secondary substances do have subjects, so they are not ultimate in the ontology [Aristotle, by Frede,M]
In earlier Aristotle the substances were particulars, not kinds [Aristotle, by Lawson-Tancred]
A 'primary' substance is in each subject, with species or genera as 'secondary' substances [Aristotle]
Mature Aristotle sees organisms as the paradigm substances [Aristotle, by Pasnau]
Elements and physical objects are substances, but ideas and mathematics are not so clear [Aristotle]
Is a primary substance a foundation of existence, or the last stage of understanding? [Aristotle, by Gill,ML]
Units are positionless substances, and points are substances with position [Aristotle]
Cut wood doesn't make a new substance, but seems to make separate subjects [William of Ockham]
Substances 'substand' (beneath accidents), or 'subsist' (independently) [Eustachius]
We can conceive of three sorts of substance: God, finite intelligence, and bodies [Locke]
We sort and name substances by nominal and not by real essence [Locke]
Substances mirror God or the universe, each from its own viewpoint [Leibniz]
Substance must necessarily involve progress and change [Leibniz]
Substances are everywhere in matter, like points in a line [Leibniz]
Descartes says there are two substance, Spinoza one, and Leibniz infinitely many [Cottingham]
Maybe there is only one substance, space-time or a quantum field [Heil]
We can ask for the nature of substance, about type of substance, and about individual substances [Cover/O'Leary-Hawthorne]
Scholastics use 'substantia' for thick concrete entities, and for thin metaphysical ones [Pasnau]