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4. Formal Logic / E. Nonclassical Logics / 6. Free Logic

[logic with no existence commitment for the quantifiers]

8 ideas
So-called 'free logic' operates without existence assumptions [George/Van Evra on Meinong]
A 'free' logic can have empty names, and a 'universally free' logic can have empty domains [Bostock]
Free logic at least allows empty names, but struggles to express non-existence [Bach]
Free logic is one of the few first-order non-classical logics [Priest,G]
Same say there are positive, negative and neuter free logics [Read]
Free logic terms aren't existential; classical is non-empty, with referring names [Beall/Restall]
Free logic was developed for fictional or non-existent objects [Friend]
Free logics has terms that do not designate real things, and even empty domains [Anderson,CA]