structure for 'Language'    |     alphabetical list of themes    |     expand these ideas

19. Language / D. Theories of Reference / 5. Speaker's Reference

[reference fixed by what the speaker intends]

9 ideas
I may regard a thought about Phosphorus as true, and the same thought about Hesperus as false [Frege]
Russell assumes that expressions refer, but actually speakers refer by using expressions [Cooper,DE on Russell]
Expressions don't refer; people use expressions to refer [Strawson,P]
If an utterance fails to refer then it is a pseudo-use, though a speaker may think they assert something [Strawson,P]
Whether a definite description is referential or attributive depends on the speaker's intention [Donnellan]
'That duck' may not refer to the most obvious one in the group [Bach]
What a pronoun like 'he' refers back to is usually a matter of speaker's intentions [Bach]
Information comes from knowing who is speaking, not just from interpretation of the utterance [Bach]
Even a quantifier like 'someone' can be used referentially [Sainsbury]