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19. Language / B. Reference / 5. Speaker's Reference

[reference fixed by what the speaker intends]

12 ideas
I may regard a thought about Phosphorus as true, and the same thought about Hesperus as false [Frege]
Russell assumes that expressions refer, but actually speakers refer by using expressions [Cooper,DE on Russell]
Expressions don't refer; people use expressions to refer [Strawson,P]
If an utterance fails to refer then it is a pseudo-use, though a speaker may think they assert something [Strawson,P]
Whether a definite description is referential or attributive depends on the speaker's intention [Donnellan]
Context does not create reference; it is just something speakers can exploit [Bach]
'That duck' may not refer to the most obvious one in the group [Bach]
What a pronoun like 'he' refers back to is usually a matter of speaker's intentions [Bach]
Information comes from knowing who is speaking, not just from interpretation of the utterance [Bach]
Even a quantifier like 'someone' can be used referentially [Sainsbury]
Because some entities overlap, reference must have analytic individuation principles [Sidelle]
No language is semantically referential; it all occurs at the level of thought or utterance [Pietroski, by Hofweber]