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18. Thought / D. Concepts / 4. Structure of Concepts / d. Concepts as prototypes

[concepts as built around typical examples of things]

22 ideas
Many concepts lack prototypes, and complex prototypes aren't built from simple ones [Fodor]
Maybe stereotypes are a stage in concept acquisition (rather than a by-product) [Fodor]
One stereotype might be a paradigm for two difference concepts [Fodor]
Categories are characterized by distance from a prototype [Gelman]
Prototypes are unified representations of the entire category (rather than of members) [Murphy]
There is no 'ideal' bird or dog, and prototypes give no information about variability [Murphy]
The prototype theory uses observed features, but can't include their construction [Murphy]
The prototype theory handles hierarchical categories and combinations of concepts well [Murphy]
Prototypes theory of concepts is best, as a full description with weighted typical features [Murphy]
Learning concepts is forming prototypes with a knowledge structure [Murphy]
The prototype theory is probabilistic, picking something out if it has sufficient of the properties [Margolis/Laurence]
Complex concepts have emergent properties not in the ingredient prototypes [Margolis/Laurence]
Many complex concepts obviously have no prototype [Margolis/Laurence]
Prototype theory categorises by computing the number of shared constituents [Margolis/Laurence]
People don't just categorise by apparent similarities [Margolis/Laurence]
Knowing typical properties of things is especially useful in induction [Machery]
The term 'prototype' is used for both typical category members, and the representation [Machery]
Prototype theories are based on computation of similarities with the prototype [Machery]
Prototype theorists don't tell us how we select the appropriate prototype [Machery]
Maybe concepts are not the typical properties, but the ideal properties [Machery]
It is more efficient to remember the prototype, than repeatedly create it from exemplars [Machery]
The prototype view predicts that typical members are easier to categorise [Machery]