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9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 1. Concept of Identity

[how we should understand the idea of identity]

25 ideas
Two things with the same primary being and essence are one thing [Aristotle]
Inequality can be brought infinitely close to equality [Leibniz]
Both number and unity are incompatible with the relation of identity [Hume]
Viewing an object at an instant, we can have no conception of its identity, but only of its unity [PG on Hume]
Real identity admits of no degrees [Reid]
Identity can only be affirmed of things which have a continued existence [Reid]
The idea of a criterion of identity was introduced by Frege [Noonan on Frege]
Frege's algorithm of identity is the law of putting equals for equals [Frege]
Frege was asking how identities could be informative [Perry on Frege]
Identity is not a relation between objects [Wittgenstein]
To unite a sequence of ostensions to make one object, a prior concept of identity is needed [Quine]
We know what things are by distinguishing them, so identity is part of ontology [Quine]
The concept of 'identity' must allow for some changes in properties or parts [Martin,CB]
Only abstract things can have specific and full identity specifications [Martin,CB]
When entities contain entities, or overlap with them, there is 'partial' identity [Armstrong]
With the necessity of self-identity plus Leibniz's Law, identity has to be an 'internal' relation [Kripke]
Some say a 'covering concept' completes identity; others place the concept in the reference [Ayers]
Identity is a very weak relation, which doesn't require interdefinability, or shared properties [Perry]
Identity over a time and at a time aren't different concepts [Wiggins]
Hesperus=Hesperus, and Phosphorus=Hesperus, so necessarily Phosphorus=Hesperus [Wiggins]
We should talk of the transitivity of 'identity', and of 'definite identity' [Inwagen]
Identity propositions are not always tautological, and have a key epistemic role [McGinn]
Identities must hold because of other facts, which must be instrinsic [Mackie,P on Forbes,G]
The relations featured in criteria of identity are always equivalence relations [Hale]
Our notion of identical sets involves identical members, which needs absolute identity [Hawthorne]