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22. Metaethics / B. Basis of Ethics / 1. Morality

[overviews of morality in life and understanding]

19 ideas
Animals lack morality because they lack self-reflection [Leibniz]
Without God, creation and free will, morality would be empty [Kant]
Morality and philosophy are mutually dependent [Novalis]
Ethics is the science of aims [Peirce]
Morality is a system of values which accompanies a being's life [Nietzsche]
Healthy morality is dominated by an instinct for life [Nietzsche]
Ethics cannot be put into words [Wittgenstein]
Some people think there are ethical facts, but of a 'queer' sort [Ayer]
A right attitude is just an attitude one is prepared to stand by [Ayer]
Ethics is the conscious practice of freedom [Foucault]
Actions norms are only valid if everyone possibly affected is involved in the discourse [Habermas]
Avoid punishment, then get rewards, avoid rejection, avoid guilt, accept contracts, follow conscience [Wilson,EO on Kohlberg]
Morality based on 'forbid', 'permit' and 'require' implies someone who does these things [Taylor,R]
Selfhood and moral values are inextricably intertwined [Taylor,C]
In bad actions, guilt points towards victims, and shame to the agent [Williams,B]
There is no one theory of how to act (or what to believe) [Nagel]
Moral problems are responsibility conflicts, needing contextual and narrative attention to relationships [Gilligan]
We still have the appearance and language of morality, but we no longer understand it [MacIntyre]
Moral judgements now are anachronisms from a theistic age [MacIntyre]