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10. Modality / C. Sources of Modality / 6. Necessity from Essence

[necessity comes from the essence of actual things]

16 ideas
Some things have external causes of their necessity; others (the simple) generate necessities [Aristotle]
Aristotle's says necessary truths are distinct and derive from essential truths [Koslicki on Aristotle]
Necessity is in reference to essence or to cause [Spinoza]
Metaphysical necessities are true in virtue of the essences of things [Ellis]
Individual essences necessitate that individual; natural kind essences necessitate kind membership [Ellis]
Socrates is necessarily distinct from the Eiffel Tower, but that is not part of his essence [Fine,K]
Metaphysical necessities are true in virtue of the nature of all objects [Fine,K]
It is the nature of Socrates to be a man, so necessarily he is a man [Fine,K]
Essentialism is often identified with belief in 'de re' necessary truths [Mautner]
If basic physics has natures, then why not reality itself? That would then found the deepest necessities [Heil]
If an essence implies p, then p is an essential truth, and hence metaphysically necessary [Lowe]
Metaphysical necessity is either an essential truth, or rests on essential truths [Lowe]
The big challenge for essentialist views of modality is things having necessary existence [Hale]
Essentialism doesn't explain necessity reductively; it explains all necessities in terms of a few basic natures [Hale]
If necessity derives from essences, how do we explain the necessary existence of essences? [Hale]
We can base counterfactuals on powers, not possible worlds, and hence define necessity [Jacobs]