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9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 9. Sameness

[how we should understand two things being 'the same']

8 ideas
'Same' is mainly for names or definitions, but also for propria, and for accidents [Aristotle]
Two identical things have the same accidents, they are the same; if the accidents differ, they're different [Aristotle]
Numerical sameness and generic sameness are not the same [Aristotle]
Things are the same if one can be substituted for the other without loss of truth [Leibniz]
There is 'loose' identity between things if their properties, or truths about them, might differ [Chisholm]
Being 'the same' is meaningless, unless we specify 'the same X' [Geach]
A vague identity may seem intransitive, and we might want to talk of 'counterparts' [Kripke]
We want to explain sameness as coincidence of substance, not as anything qualitative [Wiggins]