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26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 3. Space / c. Substantival space

[space that exists in its own right]

12 ideas
If everything has a place, this causes an infinite regress, because each place must have place [Aristotle]
The universe as a whole is not anywhere [Aristotle]
Space must exist, since movement is obvious, and there must be somewhere to move in [Epicurus]
Absolute space is independent, homogeneous and immovable [Newton]
The idea that the universe could be moved forward with no other change is just a fantasy [Leibniz]
So-called 'empty' space is the carrier of geometry and kinematics [Heisenberg]
Absolute space either provides locations, or exists but lacks 'marks' for locations [Alexander,P]
Empty space is measurable in ways in which empty time necessarily is not [Shoemaker on Bennett]
Both philosophy and physics now make substantivalism more attractive [Field,H]
Measuring space requires no movement while I do it [Scruton]
General Relativity allows substantivalism about space-time - that it has independent properties [Hoefer]
Space has real betweenness and congruence structure (though it is not the Euclidean concepts) [Sider]