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22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / f. Ultimate value

[what has the highest value or desirablity]

26 ideas
No one would choose life just for activities not done for their own sake [Aristotle]
The goal is to 'live in agreement', according to one rational consistent principle [Zeno of Citium, by Stobaeus]
Live in agreement, according to experience of natural events [Chrysippus]
The goal is to live consistently with the constitution of a human being [Stoic school, by Clement]
There is no absolute good, for even the goodness of God is goodness to us [Hobbes]
If there are different ultimate goods, there will be conflicting good actions, which is impossible [Cumberland]
What is contemplated must have a higher value than contemplation [Kant, by Korsgaard]
Only a good will can give man's being, and hence the world, a final purpose [Kant]
The love of man is required in order to present the world as a beautiful and perfect moral whole [Kant]
All morality directs the will to love of others' ends, and respect for others' rights [Kant]
Kant may rate two things as finally valuable: having a good will, and deserving happiness [Orsi on Kant]
An autonomous agent has dignity [Würde], which has absolute worth [Kant, by Pinkard]
The good will is unconditionally good, because it is the only possible source of value [Kant, by Korsgaard]
Good or evil cannot be a thing, but only a maxim of action, making the person good or evil [Kant]
We cannot attain all the ideals of every culture, so there cannot be a perfect life [Herder, by Berlin]
Will casts aside each of its temporary fulfilments, so human life has no ultimate aim [Schopenhauer, by Scruton]
Our criteria for evaluating how to live offer an answer to the problem [Frankfurt]
What is worthwhile for its own sake alone may be worth very little [Frankfurt]
Freedom to live according to our own conception of the good is the ultimate value [Nozick, by Kymlicka]
Beauty (unlike truth and goodness) is questionable as an ultimate value [Scruton]
Our attitudes include what possibilities we value, and also what is allowable, and unthinkable [Kekes]
Unconditional commitments are our most basic convictions, saying what must never be done [Kekes]
Doing the unthinkable damages ourselves, so it is more basic than any value [Kekes]
An end can't be an ultimate value just because it is useless! [Korsgaard]
If we can't reason about value, we can reason about the unconditional source of value [Korsgaard]
A thing may have final value, which is still derived from other values, or from relations [Orsi]