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8. Modes of Existence / D. Universals / 1. Universals

[single concepts applying to many things]

38 ideas
Substance is not a universal, as the former is particular but a universal is shared [Aristotle]
Universals are indeterminate and only known in potential, because they are general [Witt on Aristotle]
Are genera and species real or conceptual? bodies or incorporeal? in sensibles or separate from them? [Porphyry]
Five universals: genus, species, difference, property, accident [Descartes]
Locke, Berkeley and Hume did no serious thinking about universals [Robinson,H on Locke]
Universals are just abstractions by concealing some of the circumstances [Leibniz]
We can't get a semantics from nouns and predicates referring to the same thing [Dummett on Frege]
Every complete sentence must contain at least one word (a verb) which stands for a universal [Russell]
Propositions express relations (prepositions and verbs) as well as properties (nouns and adjectives) [Russell]
Confused views of reality result from thinking that only nouns and adjectives represent universals [Russell]
All universals are like the relation "is north of", in having no physical location at all [Loux on Russell]
The distinction between particulars and universals is a mistake made because of language [Ramsey]
We could make universals collections of particulars, or particulars collections of their qualities [Ramsey]
Realism, conceptualism and nominalism in medieval universals reappear in maths as logicism, intuitionism and formalism [Quine]
Particulars and properties are distinguishable, but too close to speak of a relation [Armstrong]
Should we decide which universals exist a priori (through words), or a posteriori (through science)? [Armstrong]
Universals are just the repeatable features of a world [Armstrong]
There are 'substantive' (objects of some kind), 'dynamic' (events of some kind) and 'property' universals [Ellis]
Universals are all types of natural kind [Ellis]
We can understand universals by studying predication [Dummett]
It is lunacy to think we only see ink-marks, and not word-types [Boolos]
The main rivals to universals are resemblance or natural-class nominalism, or sparse trope theory [Lewis]
Universals recur, are multiply located, wholly present, make things overlap, and are held in common [Lewis]
If particles were just made of universals, similar particles would be the same particle [Lewis]
I suspend judgements about universals, but their work must done [Lewis]
Realism doesn't explain 'a is F' any further by saying it is 'a has F-ness' [Devitt]
'Structural universals' methane and butane are made of the same universals, carbon and hydrogen [Oliver]
Universals come in hierarchies of generality [Loux]
Austere nominalists insist that the realist's universals lack the requisite independent identifiability [Loux]
Sortal terms for universals involve a substance, whereas adjectival terms do not [Lowe]
The category of universals can be sub-divided into properties and relations [Lowe]
Various attempts are made to evade universals being wholly present in different places [Swoyer]
Realists take universals to be the referrents of both adjectives and of nouns [Hale]
It is doubtful if one entity, a universal, can be picked out by both predicates and abstract nouns [Hale]
If F can't have location, there is no problem of things having F in different locations [Hale]
One realism is one-over-many, which may be the model/copy view, which has the Third Man problem [Moreland]
If properties are universals, what distinguishes two things which have identical properties? [Moreland]
Realists see properties as universals, which are single abstract entities which are multiply exemplifiable [Moreland]