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9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 14. Knowledge of Essences

[how we might know the essence of an object]

19 ideas
Aristotle claims that the individual is epistemologically prior to the universal [Aristotle, by Witt]
Actual knowledge is of the individual, and potential knowledge of the universal [Aristotle, by Witt]
We only know essences through non-essential features, esp. those closest to the essence [Suárez]
Experience does not teach us any essences of things [Spinoza]
The essence of a triangle is simple; presumably substance essences are similar [Locke]
A space between three lines is both the nominal and real essence of a triangle, the source of its properties [Locke]
The schools recognised that they don't really know essences, because they couldn't coin names for them [Locke]
Essence is the distinct thinkability of anything [Leibniz]
Real cognition grasps a thing from within itself, and is not satisfied with mere predicates [Hegel]
If there are essential properties, how do you find out what they are? [Chisholm]
If essences are objects with only essential properties, they are elusive in possible worlds [Marcus (Barcan)]
Kripke claims that some properties, only knowable posteriori, are known a priori to be essential [Kripke, by Soames]
An essence is the necessary properties, derived from an intuitive identity, in origin, type and material [Kripke, by Witt]
The difficulty in essentialism is deciding the grounds for rating an attribute as essential [Cartwright,R]
If we must know some entity to know an essence, we lack a faculty to do that [Lowe]
Knowing an essence is just knowing what the thing is, not knowing some further thing [Lowe]
How can we show that a universally possessed property is an essential property? [Mumford]
Essentialism comes from the cognitive need to categorise [Gelman]
We found no evidence that mothers teach essentialism to their children [Gelman]