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26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 1. Laws of Nature

[nature and status of the regularities of nature]

42 ideas
Principles of things are not hidden features of forms, but the laws by which they were formed [Newton]
The principles of my treatise are designed to fit with a belief in God [Newton]
God's laws would be meaningless without internal powers for following them [Leibniz]
Each possible world contains its own laws, reflected in the possible individuals of that world [Leibniz]
An entelechy is a law of the series of its event within some entity [Leibniz]
Primitive forces are internal strivings of substances, acting according to their internal laws [Leibniz]
Even if extension is impenetrable, this still offers no explanation for motion and its laws [Leibniz]
Euler said nature is instrinsically passive, and minds cause change [Ellis on Euler]
The world is full of variety, but laws seem to produce uniformity [Peirce]
Our laws of nature may be the result of evolution [Peirce]
In religious thought nature is a complex of arbitrary acts by conscious beings [Nietzsche]
The law of gravity has many consequences beyond its grounding observations [Russell]
We don't use laws to make predictions, we call things laws if we make predictions with them [Goodman]
Science depends on laws of nature to study unobserved times and spaces [Armstrong]
A universe couldn't consist of mere laws [Armstrong]
Least action is not a causal law, but a 'global law', describing a global essence [Ellis]
Laws of nature are just descriptions of how things are disposed to behave [Ellis]
For 'passivists' behaviour is imposed on things from outside [Ellis]
The laws of nature imitate the hierarchy of natural kinds [Ellis]
Laws of nature tend to describe ideal things, or ideal circumstances [Ellis]
We must explain the necessity, idealisation, ontology and structure of natural laws [Ellis]
Laws don't exist in the world; they are true of the world [Ellis]
Classification is just as important as laws in natural science [Harré]
Newton's First Law cannot be demonstrated experimentally, as that needs absence of external forces [Harré]
Are laws about what has or might happen, or do they also cover all the possibilities? [Harré]
Are laws of nature about events, or types and universals, or dispositions, or all three? [Harré]
Being lawlike seems to resist formal analysis, because there are always counter-examples [Harré/Madden]
Physics discovers laws and causal explanations, and also the natural properties required [Lewis]
In the 'laws' view events are basic, and properties are categorical, only existing when manifested [Mumford]
There are four candidates for the logical form of law statements [Mumford]
Laws of nature are ontological bedrock, and beyond analysis [Maudlin]
Laws are primitive, so two indiscernible worlds could have the same laws [Maudlin]
Fundamental laws say how nature will, or might, evolve from some initial state [Maudlin]
Laws are explanatory relationships of things, which supervene on their essences [Bird]
Laws are either disposition regularities, or relations between properties [Bird]
Newton's laws cannot be confirmed individually, but only in combinations [Bird]
Parapsychology is mere speculation, because it offers no mechanisms for its working [Bird]
Existence requires laws, as inertia or gravity are needed for mass or matter [Bird]
Science may have uninstantiated laws, inferred from approaching some unrealised limit [Ladyman/Ross]
Many causal laws do not refer to kinds, but only to properties [Chakravartty]
Dispositional essentialism says fundamental laws of nature are strict, not ceteris paribus [Corry]
The normative view says laws show the natural behaviour of natural kind members [Mumford/Anjum]