structure for 'Metaethics'    |     alphabetical list of themes    |     expand these ideas

22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / a. Preconditions for ethics

[what is needed to created an ethical system?]

9 ideas
To understand morality requires a soul [Plato]
Animals lack morality because they lack self-reflection [Leibniz]
Immorality is not in the action, but in the deviation of the will from moral law [Berkeley]
Without God, creation and free will, morality would be empty [Kant]
Duty is impossible without prior moral feeling, conscience, love and self-respect [Kant]
Healthy morality is dominated by an instinct for life [Nietzsche]
Levinas took 'first philosophy' to begin with seeing the vulnerable faces of others [Levinas, by Aho]
Morality must be motivating, and not because of pre-moral motives [Nagel]
All moral life depends ultimately on piety, which is our recognition of our own dependence [Scruton]