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23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / a. Nature of virtue

[morality as aiming to produce good persons]

45 ideas
A virtue is a combination of intelligence, strength and luck [Ion]
By 'areté' Socrates means just what we mean by moral virtue [Vlastos on Socrates]
'Arete' signifies lack of complexity and a free-flowing soul [Plato]
Plato, unusually, said that theoretical and practical wisdom are inseparable [Plato, by Kraut]
The good for man is an activity of soul in accordance with virtue [Aristotle]
Many pleasures are relative to a person, but some love what is pleasant by nature, and virtue is like that [Aristotle]
Aristotle must hold that virtuous King Priam's life can be marred, but not ruined [Hursthouse on Aristotle]
Feelings are vital to virtue, but virtue requires choice, which feelings lack [Kosman on Aristotle]
Actions are not virtuous because of their quality, but because of the way they are done [Aristotle]
If virtues are not feelings or faculties, then they must be dispositions [Aristotle]
Virtue is the feeling of emotions that accord with one's perception of value [Achtenberg on Aristotle]
Virtue is a purposive mean disposition, which follows a rational principle and prudent judgment [Aristotle]
Acts may be forgivable if particular facts (rather than principles) are unknown [Aristotle]
There are six categories of particular cirumstance affecting an action [Aristotle]
An act is involuntary if the particular facts (esp. circumstances and effect) are unknown [Aristotle]
People who perform just acts unwillingly or ignorantly are still not just [Aristotle]
A life of moral virtue brings human happiness, but not divine happiness [Aristotle]
Virtue is different from continence [Aristotle]
Excellence is a sort of completion [Aristotle]
All moral virtue is concerned with bodily pleasure and pain [Aristotle]
All good things can be misused, except virtue [Aristotle]
The best virtues are the most useful to others [Aristotle]
Zeno saw virtue as a splendid state, not just a source of splendid action [Zeno of Citium, by Cicero]
All virtue is good, but not always praised (as in not lusting after someone ugly) [Chrysippus]
If humans are citizens of the world (not just a state) then virtue is all good human habits [Stoic school, by Mautner]
We must choose in which of the virtues we wish to excel [Panaetius]
The bad seek the good through desire, but the good through virtue, which is more natural [Boethius]
Personal Merit is the possession of useful or agreeable mental qualities [Hume]
Virtue lets a rational being make universal law, and share in the kingdom of ends [Kant]
A duty of virtue is a duty which is also an end [Kant]
Virtue is strong maxims for duty [Kant]
The supreme principle of virtue is to find universal laws for ends [Kant]
The highest worth for human beings lies in dispositions, not just actions [Kant]
Virtue is the supreme state of our pursuit of happiness, and so is supreme good [Kant]
Virtue must spring from an intuitive recognition that other people are essentially like us [Schopenhauer]
The great error is to think that happiness derives from virtue, which in turn derives from free will [Nietzsche]
Greek moral progress came when 'virtue' was freed from social status [Williams,B]
Maybe we can only understand rules if we first understand the virtues [MacIntyre]
Virtue is a kind of understanding of moral value [Annas]
Virtue theory is hopeless if there is no core of agreed universal virtues [Zagzebski]
A virtue must always have a corresponding vice [Zagzebski]
Eight marks distingush skills from virtues [Zagzebski, by PG]
Virtues are deep acquired excellences of persons, which successfully attain desire ends [Zagzebski]
Every moral virtue requires a degree of intelligence [Zagzebski]
When it comes to bringing up children, most of us think that the virtues are the best bet [Hursthouse]