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26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 2. Natural Purpose / b. Limited purposes

[aspects of nature are defined by purpose]

18 ideas
Aristotle needed to distinguish teleological description from teleological explanation [Irwin on Aristotle]
The nature of any given thing is determined by its end [Aristotle]
It is folly not to order one's life around some end [Aristotle]
Everything seeks, not a single good, but its own separate good [Aristotle]
The nature of a thing is its end and purpose [Aristotle]
A thing's purpose is ambiguous, and from one point of view we ourselves are ends [Aristotle]
Teeth and crops are predictable, so they cannot be mere chance, but must have a purpose [Aristotle]
The best instruments have one purpose, not many [Aristotle]
Nature has no particular goal in view, and final causes are mere human figments [Spinoza]
A machine is best defined by its final cause, which explains the roles of the parts [Leibniz]
We can discover some laws of nature, but never its ultimate principles and causes [Hume]
Without men creation would be in vain, and without final purpose [Kant]
Reason must assume as necessary that everything in a living organism has a proportionate purpose [Kant]
'Purpose' is like the sun, where most heat is wasted, and a tiny part has 'purpose' [Nietzsche]
The end need not be the goal, as in the playing of a melody (and yet it must be completed) [Nietzsche]
Originally there were no reasons, purposes or functions; since there were no interests, there were only causes [Dennett]
We need a notion of teleology that comes in degrees [Lycan]
Teleological thinking is essential for social and political issues [Sandel]