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14. Science / A. Basis of Science / 6. Falsification

[establishing that a fact or theory is not true]

13 ideas
A single counterexample is enough to prove that a truth is not necessary [Aristotle]
If a proposition implies any false consequences, then it is false [Kant]
We only discard a hypothesis after one failure if it appears likely to keep on failing [Ayer]
Most theories are continually falsified [Kuhn, by Kitcher]
We don't only reject hypotheses because we have falsified them [Lipton on Popper]
If falsification requires logical inconsistency, then probabilistic statements can't be falsified [Bird on Popper]
When Popper gets in difficulties, he quietly uses induction to help out [Bird on Popper]
Falsification is the criterion of demarcation between science and non-science [Popper, by Magee]
Particulars can be verified or falsified, but general statements can only be falsified (conclusively) [Popper]
Unfalsifiability may be a failure in an empirical theory, but it is a virtue in metaphysics [Lowe]
A proposition such as 'some swans are purple' cannot be falsified, only verified [Baggini /Fosl]
Falsificationism would be naive if even a slight discrepancy in evidence killed a theory [McGrew]
Smoking disposes towards cancer; smokers without cancer do not falsify this claim [Mumford/Anjum]