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14. Science / A. Basis of Science / 6. Falsification

[establishing that a fact or theory is not true]

21 ideas
A single counterexample is enough to prove that a truth is not necessary [Aristotle]
If a proposition implies any false consequences, then it is false [Kant]
Experimenters assume the theory is true, and stick to it as long as result don't disappoint [James]
Observation can force rejection of some part of the initial set of claims [Duhem, by Boulter]
We only discard a hypothesis after one failure if it appears likely to keep on failing [Ayer]
Kuhn's scientists don't aim to falsifying their paradigm, because that is what they rely on [Kuhn, by Gorham]
Most theories are continually falsified [Kuhn, by Kitcher]
Give Nobel Prizes for really good refutations? [Gorham on Popper]
Falsification is the criterion of demarcation between science and non-science [Popper, by Magee]
We don't only reject hypotheses because we have falsified them [Lipton on Popper]
If falsification requires logical inconsistency, then probabilistic statements can't be falsified [Bird on Popper]
When Popper gets in difficulties, he quietly uses induction to help out [Bird on Popper]
Particulars can be verified or falsified, but general statements can only be falsified (conclusively) [Popper]
Unfalsifiability may be a failure in an empirical theory, but it is a virtue in metaphysics [Lowe]
A proposition such as 'some swans are purple' cannot be falsified, only verified [Baggini /Fosl]
The discoverers of Neptune didn't change their theory because of an anomaly [Okasha]
Science mostly aims at confirming theories, rather than falsifying them [Okasha]
Why abandon a theory if you don't have a better one? [Gorham]
If a theory is more informative it is less probable [Gorham]
Falsificationism would be naive if even a slight discrepancy in evidence killed a theory [McGrew]
Smoking disposes towards cancer; smokers without cancer do not falsify this claim [Mumford/Anjum]