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26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 3. General Causation / a. Constant conjunction

[causation as a regular link between event-types]

23 ideas
Causation is only observation of similar events following each other, with nothing visible in between [Hobbes]
We discover natural behaviour by observing settled laws of nature, not necessary connections [Berkeley]
Hume says we can only know constant conjunctions, not that that's what causation IS [Strawson,G on Hume]
No causes can be known a priori, but only from experience of constant conjunctions [Hume]
In both of Hume's definitions, causation is extrinsic to the sequence of events [Psillos on Hume]
Hume's definition of cause as constantly joined thoughts can't cover undiscovered laws [Ayer on Hume]
A cause is either similar events following one another, or an experience always suggesting a second experience [Hume]
It is only when two species of thing are constantly conjoined that we can infer one from the other [Hume]
Day and night are constantly conjoined, but they don't cause one another [Crane on Reid]
Appearances give rules of what usually happens, but cause involves necessity [Kant]
Causation is just invariability of succession between every natural fact and a preceding fact [Mill]
If impressions, memories and ideas only differ in vivacity, nothing says it is memory, or repetition [Whitehead]
Striking a match causes its igniting, even if it sometimes doesn't work [Russell]
Recurrence is only relevant to the meaning of law, not to the meaning of cause [Ducasse]
Causation is just invariance, as long as it is described in general terms [Quine]
If things turn red for an hour and then explode, we wouldn't say the redness was the cause [Shoemaker]
Regularity analyses could make c an effect of e, or an epiphenomenon, or inefficacious, or pre-empted [Lewis]
In counterfactual worlds there are laws with no instances, so laws aren't supervenient on actuality [Tooley]
The regularity theory explains a causal event by other items than the two that are involved [Crane]
A phenomenalist about objects has to be a regularity theorist about causation [Strawson,G]
Coincidence is conjunction without causation; smoking causing cancer is the reverse [Mumford/Anjum]
Causation - we all thought we knew it/ Till Hume came along and saw through it/. [Sommers,W]
Cries the maid: 'You must marry me Hume!'... [Sommers,W]