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26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 1. Nature

[everything existing in known reality]

27 ideas
'Nature' is just a word invented by people [Empedocles]
If there are many things they must have a finite number, but there must be endless things between them [Zeno of Elea]
The creator of the cosmos had no envy, and so wanted things to be as like himself as possible [Plato]
The cosmos must be unique, because it resembles the creator, who is unique [Plato]
Nature does nothing in vain [Aristotle]
Why are some things destructible and others not? [Aristotle]
'Nature' refers to two things - form and matter [Aristotle]
Nature is a principle of change, so we must understand change first [Aristotle]
Nothing natural is disorderly, because nature is responsible for all order [Aristotle]
Stoic 'nature' is deterministic, physical and teleological [Stoic school, by Annas]
Nature runs the universe by herself without the aid of gods [Lucretius]
Some regard nature simply as an irrational force that imparts movement [Cicero]
Unified real existence is neither great nor small, though greatness and smallness participate in it [Porphyry]
Physics only needs geometry or abstract mathematics, which can explain and demonstrate everything [Descartes]
Nature is devoid of thought [Descartes, by Meillassoux]
We can easily think of nature as one individual [Spinoza]
We are so far from understanding the workings of natural bodies that it is pointless to even try [Locke]
The principle of determination in things obtains the greatest effect with the least effort [Leibniz]
Kant identifies nature with the scientific picture of it as the realm of law [Kant, by McDowell]
Unnatural, when it means anything, means infrequent [Bentham]
Nature is a whole, and its individual parts cannot be wholly understood [Novalis]
When man wills the natural, it is no longer natural [Hegel]
The essence of nature is the will to life itself [Schopenhauer]
If the world is one it has many aspects, and if there are many worlds they will collect into one [Goodman]
The concept of physical necessity is basic to both causation, and to the concept of nature [Chisholm]
I take what is fundamental to be the whole spatiotemporal manifold and its fields [Schaffer,J]
Greek philosophers invented the concept of 'nature' as their special subject [Watson]