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26. Natural Theory / A. Heart of Nature / 1. Nature

[everything existing within known reality]

19 ideas
'Nature' is just a word invented by people [Empedocles]
The creator of the cosmos had no envy, and so wanted things to be as like himself as possible [Plato]
The cosmos must be unique, because it resembles the creator, who is unique [Plato]
Nature does nothing in vain [Aristotle]
'Nature' refers to two things - form and matter [Aristotle]
Nature is a principle of change, so we must understand change first [Aristotle]
Stoic 'nature' is deterministic, physical and teleological [Stoic school, by Annas]
Nature runs the universe by herself without the aid of gods [Lucretius]
Some regard nature simply as an irrational force that imparts movement [Cicero]
Physics only needs geometry or abstract mathematics, which can explain and demonstrate everything [Descartes]
Nature is devoid of thought [Descartes, by Meillassoux]
The principle of determination in things obtains the greatest effect with the least effort [Leibniz]
Kant identifies nature with the scientific picture of it as the realm of law [Kant, by McDowell]
Unnatural, when it means anything, means infrequent [Bentham]
Nature is a whole, and its individual parts cannot be wholly understood [Novalis]
When man wills the natural, it is no longer natural [Hegel]
The essence of nature is the will to life itself [Schopenhauer]
The concept of physical necessity is basic to both causation, and to the concept of nature [Chisholm]
Greek philosophers invented the concept of 'nature' as their special subject [Watson]