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19. Language / B. Reference / 3. Direct Reference / a. Direct reference

[thought connecting directly with external things]

11 ideas
We should separate how the reference of 'gold' is fixed from its conceptual content [Putnam]
Like names, natural kind terms have their meaning fixed by extension and reference [Putnam]
Kripke derives accounts of reference and proper names from assumptions about worlds and essences [Stalnaker on Kripke]
Kripke has a definitional account of kinds, but not of naming [Almog on Kripke]
Direct reference is by proper names, or indexicals, or referential uses of descriptions [Adams,RM]
Kripke and Putnam made false claims that direct reference implies essentialism [Salmon,N]
The perfect case of direct reference is a variable which has been assigned a value [Salmon,N]
First-order logic tilts in favour of the direct reference theory, in its use of constants for objects [Jubien]
Direct reference doesn't seem to require that thinkers know what it is they are thinking about [Lowe]
Direct reference is strong Millian (just a tag) or weak Kaplanian (allowing descriptions as well) [Recanati]
In super-direct reference, the referent serves as its own vehicle of reference [Recanati]