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15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 2. Psuché

[Greek concept of the mind/soul/life]

22 ideas
Democritus says soul consists of smooth round bodies brought together in accidental collision [Cicero on Democritus]
Atomists say soul has a rational part in the chest, and a diffused non-rational part [Aetius on Democritus]
Soul causes the body to live, and gives it power to breathe and to be revitalized [Plato]
The soul is self-motion [Plato]
Psychic conflict is clear if appetite is close to the body and reason fairly separate [Modrak on Plato]
There is a third element to the mind - spirit - lying between reason and appetite [Plato]
Plato says the soul is ordered by number [Plutarch on Plato]
Xenocrates held that the soul had no form or substance, but was number [Cicero on Xenocrates]
Aristotle led to the view that there are several souls, all somewhat physical [Martin/Barresi on Aristotle]
Psuché is the form and actuality of a body which potentially has life [Aristotle]
The soul is the cause or source of movement, the essence of body, and its end [Aristotle]
Everything that receives nourishment has a vegetative soul, with it own distinctive excellence [Aristotle]
In a controlled person the receptive part of the soul is obedient, and it is in harmony in the virtuous [Aristotle]
The irrational psuché is persuadable by reason - shown by our criticism and encouragement of people [Aristotle]
If beings are dominated by appetite, this can increase so much that it drives out reason [Aristotle]
The soul is fine parts distributed through the body, resembling hot breath [Epicurus]
Soul is made of four stuffs, giving warmth, rest, motion and perception [Aetius on Epicurus]
The rational soul is in the chest, and the non-rational soul is spread through the body [Epicurus]
The soul is the heart, or blood in the heart, or part of the brain, of something living in heart or brain, or breath [Cicero]
When the soul is intelligent and harmonious, it is part of god and derives from god [Plutarch]
Some philosophers say the soul is light [Plutarch]
When Aristotle speaks of soul he means something like personality [MacIntyre]