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19. Language / D. Propositions / 1. Propositions

[ideas that exist independently from any language]

27 ideas
Propositions are mainly verbal expressions of true or false, and perhaps also symbolic thoughts [Russell]
Our important beliefs all, if put into words, take the form of propositions [Russell]
A proposition expressed in words is a 'word-proposition', and one of images an 'image-proposition' [Russell]
A proposition is what we believe when we believe truly or falsely [Russell]
Propositions don't name facts, because each fact corresponds to a proposition and its negation [Russell]
Proposition contain entities indicated by words, rather than the words themselves [Russell]
A proposition is any expression which can be significantly negated [Wittgenstein]
'Propositions' name what is thought, because 'thoughts' and 'judgments' are too ambiguous [Ryle]
Sentences only express propositions if they are meaningful; otherwise they are 'statements' [Ayer]
We can't distinguish a proposition from its content [Dummett]
'Humanity belongs to Socrates' is about humanity, so it's a different proposition from 'Socrates is human' [Davidson]
Are propositions and states of affairs two separate things, or only one? I incline to say one [Plantinga]
Sentences are different from propositions, since two sentences can express one proposition [Harman]
We can pull apart assertion from utterance, and the action, the event and the subject-matter for each [Cartwright,R]
'It's raining' makes a different assertion on different occasions, but its meaning remains the same [Cartwright,R]
I take propositions to be truth conditions [Stalnaker]
A theory of propositions at least needs primitive properties of consistency and of truth [Stalnaker]
There are Fregean de dicto propositions, and Russellian de re propositions, or a mixture [Horwich]
The extreme views on propositions are Frege's Platonism and Quine's extreme nominalism [Jacquette]
Two-dimensional semantics gives a 'primary' and 'secondary' proposition for each statement [Chalmers]
A proposition objectifies what a sentence says, as indicative, with secure references [Read]
Sentences saying the same with the same rigid designators may still express different propositions [Bealer]
Propositions might be reduced to functions (worlds to truth values), or ordered sets of properties and relations [Bealer]
Propositions are standardly treated as possible worlds, or as structured [Merricks]
'Cicero is an orator' represents the same situation as 'Tully is an orator', so they are one proposition [Merricks]
Propositions commit to content, and not to any way of spelling it out [Beall/Restall]
'Socrates is wise' denotes a sentence; 'that Socrates is wise' denotes a proposition [Engelbretsen]