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19. Language / E. Propositions / 1. Propositions

[ideas that exist independently from any language]

20 ideas
Spoken sounds vary between people, but are signs of affections of soul, which are the same for all [Aristotle]
Thought is unambiguous, and you should stick to what the speaker thinks they are saying [Gellius on Diod.Cronus]
I can't really go wrong if I stick to wordless thought [Berkeley]
Denoting phrases are meaningless, but guarantee meaning for propositions [Russell]
Our important beliefs all, if put into words, take the form of propositions [Russell]
A proposition is what we believe when we believe truly or falsely [Russell]
Propositions don't name facts, because each fact corresponds to a proposition and its negation [Russell]
Hegelians say propositions defy analysis, but Moore says they can be broken down [Monk on Moore,GE]
Sentences only express propositions if they are meaningful; otherwise they are 'statements' [Ayer]
For all being, there is a potential proposition which expresses its existence and nature [Armstrong]
We can't distinguish a proposition from its content [Dummett]
If propositions are facts, then false and true propositions are indistinguishable [Davidson]
Propositions presumably don't exist if the things they refer to don't exist [Stalnaker]
A theory of propositions at least needs primitive properties of consistency and of truth [Stalnaker]
The same proposition provides contents for the that-clause of an utterance and a belief [Lowe]
A proposition objectifies what a sentence says, as indicative, with secure references [Read]
Sentences saying the same with the same rigid designators may still express different propositions [Bealer]
Modal logic and brain science have reaffirmed traditional belief in propositions [Bealer]
Propositions commit to content, and not to any way of spelling it out [Beall/Restall]
'Socrates is wise' denotes a sentence; 'that Socrates is wise' denotes a proposition [Engelbretsen]