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20. Action / B. Preliminaries of Action / 2. Willed Action / d. Weakness of will

[failing to perform the action which is judged best]

20 ideas
No one willingly commits an evil or base act [Socrates]
The common belief is that people can know the best without acting on it [Socrates]
Socrates did not accept the tripartite soul (which permits akrasia) [Vlastos on Socrates]
People do what they think they should do, and only ever do what they think they should do [Socrates, by Xenophon]
Socrates was shocked by the idea of akrasia, but observation shows that it happens [Aristotle on Socrates]
Aristotle seems not to explain why the better syllogism is overcome in akratic actions [Burnyeat on Aristotle]
The akrates acts from desire not choice, and the enkrates acts from choice not desire [Aristotle]
Virtue is right reason and feeling and action. Akrasia and enkrateia are lower levels of action. [Aristotle, by Cottingham]
Akrasia merely neglects or misunderstands knowledge, rather than opposing it [Achtenberg on Aristotle]
Some people explain akrasia by saying only opinion is present, not knowledge [Aristotle]
A person may act against one part of his knowledge, if he knows both universal and particular [Aristotle]
Licentious people feel no regret, but weak-willed people are capable of repentance [Aristotle]
Passions are judgements; greed thinks money is honorable, and likewise drinking and lust [Chrysippus, by Diog. Laertius]
Limited awareness leads to bad choices, and unconscious awareness makes us choose the bad [Leibniz, by Perkins]
Socrates neglects the gap between knowing what is good and doing good [Kierkegaard, by Carlisle]
There is no will; weakness of will is splitting of impulses, strong will is coordination under one impulse [Nietzsche]
The causally strongest reason may not be the reason the actor judges to be best [Davidson]
We judge weakness of will by an assessment after the event is concluded [Williams,B, by Cottingham]
There may be inverse akrasia, where the agent's action is better than their judgement recommends [Hursthouse]
If you can judge one act as best, then do another, this supports an inward-looking view of agency [Stout,R]