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22. Metaethics / B. Basis of Ethics / 4. Is/Ought

[no non-human values anywhere in nature]

22 ideas
To God (though not to humans) all things are beautiful and good and just [Heraclitus]
Nature makes it self-evident to us that some things (health, beauty) have a higher value than others [PG on Plato]
Plato measured the degree of reality by the degree of value [Nietzsche on Plato]
Whether nature is beautiful or orderly is entirely in relation to human imagination [Spinoza]
Immorality is not in the action, but in the deviation of the will from moral law [Berkeley]
Virtues and vices are like secondary qualities in perception, found in observers, not objects [Hume]
Modern science has destroyed the Platonic synthesis of scientific explanation and morality [Taylor,C on Hume]
You can't move from 'is' to 'ought' without giving some explanation or reason for the deduction [Hume]
We cannot derive moral laws from experience, as it is the mother of illusion [Kant]
In every age the wisest people have judged life to be worthless [Nietzsche]
Value judgements about life can never be true [Nietzsche]
There are no moral phenomena, only interpretations, which have a non-moral basis [Nietzsche]
The beauty of a patch of colour might be the most important fact about it [Ross]
The sense of the world must lie outside the world [Wittgenstein]
Moral judgements cannot be the logical consequence of a moral philosophy [Ayer]
The problem of getting to 'ought' from 'is' would also apply in getting to 'owes' or 'needs' [Anscombe]
Some ethical ideas, such as 'treachery' and 'promise', seem to express a union of facts and values [Williams,B]
If it is true, you ought to believe it [Searle]
If this is a man, you ought to accept similar things as men [Searle]
The value/fact logical gulf is misleading, because social facts involve values [MacIntyre]
Systems that generate a sense of value are basic to the primitive brain [Edelman/Tononi]
Nothing is more usual than to apply to external bodies every internal sensation which they occasion [Psillos]