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23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 5. Persons as Ends

[seeing rational beings as an ultimate value in actions]

5 ideas
The maxim of an action is chosen, and not externally imposed [Kant, by Bowie]
Always treat humanity as an end and never as a means only [Kant]
Rational beings necessarily conceive their own existence as an end in itself [Kant]
Everyone (even God) must treat rational beings as ends in themselves, and not just as means [Kant]
Man cannot dispose of himself, because he is not a thing to be owned [Sandel]