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23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 2. Duty

[nature of duty and its underpinnings]

36 ideas
Universal law is common to all, but most people live as if they have a private understanding [Heraclitus]
It is a great thing, when one is in adversity, to think of duty [Democritus]
For Stoics, obligations are determined by social role [Taylor,R on Zeno of Citium]
Moral philosophy aims to show us our duty [Hume]
Kant has to attribute high moral worth to some deeply unattractive human lives [Graham on Kant]
Kantian duty seems to imply conformism with authority [MacIntyre on Kant]
Dutiful actions are judged not by purpose, but by the maxim followed [Kant]
Telling the truth from duty is quite different from doing so to avoid inconvenience [Kant]
A categorical imperative sees an action as necessary purely for its own sake [Kant]
There are no imperatives for a holy will, as the will is in harmony with moral law [Kant]
Men are subject to laws which are both self-made and universal [Kant]
Orthodox morality is the only one which feels obligatory [Mill]
Kant was happy with 'good will', even if it had no result [Marx/Engels]
People should follow what lies before them, and is within their power [Peirce]
Guilt and obligation originated in the relationship of buying and selling, credit and debt [Nietzsche]
Seeing the goodness of an effect creates the duty to produce it, not the desire [Prichard]
We feel obligations to overcome our own failings, and these are not relations to other people [Prichard]
We should do our duty, but not from a sense of duty [Ross]
Be faithful, grateful, just, beneficent, non-malevolent, and improve yourself [PG on Ross]
We like people who act from love, but admire more the people who act from duty [Ross]
The Greeks have no notion of obligation or duty [Berlin]
The ethics of duty requires a religious framework [Taylor,R]
If we are made in God's image, pursuit of excellence is replaced by duty to obey God [Taylor,R]
Obligation and duty look backwards (because of a promise or job), although the acts are in the future [Williams,B]
The concept of a 'duty to myself' is fraudulent [Williams,B]
Not all moral deliberations lead to obligations; some merely reveal what 'may' be done [Williams,B]
"Ought implies can" is a famous formula in connection with moral obligation [Williams,B]
'Ought' implies that there is a reason to do something [Searle]
The modern idea of duty is unknown in archaic Greece [Williams,B]
If cockroaches can't think about their actions, they have no duties [Nagel]
My duties depend on my identity, which depends on my social relations [MacIntyre]
Virtue theory tries to explain our duties in terms of our character [Annas]
That which can only be done by a callous person, ought not to be done [Scruton]
Membership is the greatest source of obligation [Scruton]
Behaviour may be disgusting or inhumane, but violate no duty [Statman]
The ancients recognised imperfect duties, but we have added perfect duties like justice [Statman]