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29. Religion / F. Problem of Evil / 1. Problem of Evil

[reasons for the existence of evil]

16 ideas
Empedocles said good and evil were the basic principles [Empedocles, by Aristotle]
There must always be some force of evil ranged against good [Plato]
The lists of good men who have suffered and bad men who have prospered are endless [Cicero]
Irenaeus says evil is necessary for perfect human development [Irenaeus, by Davies,B]
God can do anthing, but he cannot do evil, so evil must be nothing [Boethius]
If you could see the plan of Providence, you would not think there was evil anywhere [Boethius]
Evil must be tolerated, because it allows God to bring good out of evil, which is a supreme good [Aquinas, by PG]
Evil is a negation of good, which arises from non-being [Leibniz]
God only made sin possible because a much greater good can be derived from it [Leibniz]
How can an all-good, wise and powerful being allow evil, sin and apparent injustice? [Leibniz]
Being confident of God's goodness, we disregard the apparent local evils in the visible world [Leibniz]
Metaphysical evil is imperfection; physical evil is suffering; moral evil is sin [Leibniz]
Particular evils are really good when linked to the whole system of beings [Berkeley]
Is evil an illusion, or a necessary contrast, or uncontrollable, or necessary for human free will? [Mackie, by PG]
The propositions that God is good and omnipotent, and that evil exists, are logically contradictory [Mackie, by PG]
There is a problem of evil only if you expect the world to be good [Williams,B]