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20. Action / B. Preliminaries of Action / 2. Willed Action / a. Will to Act

[mental initiation of an action]

24 ideas
The 'will' doesn't exist; there is just conclusion, then action [Homer, by Williams,B]
Just as you have the impulse to do something, stop [Anon (Cent)]
Augustine created the modern concept of the will [Augustine, by Matthews]
The will can only want what it thinks is good [Aquinas]
The will must aim at happiness, but can choose the means [Aquinas]
We don't have to will even perfect good, because we can choose not to think of it [Aquinas]
Spinoza argues that in reality the will and the intellect are 'one and the same' [Spinoza, by Cottingham]
Claiming that actions depend on the will is meaningless; no one knows what the will is [Spinoza]
The idea of the will includes the understanding [Leibniz]
Will is an inclination to pursue something good [Leibniz]
Only experience teaches us about our wills [Hume]
Can pure reason determine the will, or are empirical conditions relevant? [Kant]
The will is the faculty of purposes, which guide desires according to principles [Kant]
As the subject of willing I am wretched, but absorption in knowledge is bliss [Schopenhauer]
Schopenhauer was caught in Christian ideals, because he didn't deify his 'will' [Nietzsche on Schopenhauer]
Only the will is thing-in-itself, seen both in blind nature and in human action [Schopenhauer]
The will, in the beginning, is entirely produced by desire [Mill]
The big error is to think the will is a faculty producing effects; in fact, it is just a word [Nietzsche]
The concept of the 'will' is just a false simplification by our understanding [Nietzsche]
The will is constantly frustrated by the past [Nietzsche]
The will is the effective desire which actually leads to an action [Frankfurt]
Libet says the processes initiated in the cortex can still be consciously changed [Libet, by Papineau]
Libet found conscious choice 0.2 secs before movement, well after unconscious 'readiness potential' [Libet, by Lowe]
Libet gives empirical support for the will, as a kind of 'executive' mental operation [Lowe]