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20. Action / C. Preliminaries of Action / 2. Willed Action / a. Will to Act

[mental initiation of an action]

21 ideas
Just as you have the impulse to do something, stop [Anon (Cent)]
The will can only want what it thinks is good [Aquinas]
The will must aim at happiness, but can choose the means [Aquinas]
We don't have to will even perfect good, because we can choose not to think of it [Aquinas]
Spinoza argues that in reality the will and the intellect are 'one and the same' [Cottingham on Spinoza]
Claiming that actions depend on the will is meaningless; no one knows what the will is [Spinoza]
The idea of the will includes the understanding [Leibniz]
Volition automatically endeavours to move towards what it sees as good (and away from bad) [Leibniz]
Will is an inclination to pursue something good [Leibniz]
Only experience teaches us about our wills [Hume]
Can pure reason determine the will, or are empirical conditions relevant? [Kant]
Schopenhauer was caught in Christian ideals, because he didn't deify his 'will' [Nietzsche on Schopenhauer]
The will, in the beginning, is entirely produced by desire [Mill]
The big error is to think the will is a faculty producing effects; in fact, it is just a word [Nietzsche]
The concept of the 'will' is just a false simplification by our understanding [Nietzsche]
The will is constantly frustrated by the past [Nietzsche]
The will is the effective desire which actually leads to an action [Frankfurt]
The 'will' doesn't exist; there is just conclusion, then action [Williams,B]
Libet says the processes initiated in the cortex can still be consciously changed [Papineau on Libet]
Libet found conscious choice 0.2 secs before movement, well after unconscious 'readiness potential' [Lowe on Libet]
Libet gives empirical support for the will, as a kind of 'executive' mental operation [Lowe]