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27. Natural Reality / D. Cosmology / 1. Cosmology

[origins and nature of the universe]

16 ideas
The world is established, and cannot be moved [Isaiah]
Joshua said, Sun, stand thou still [Anon (Josh)]
He was the first to discover the identity of the Morning and Evening Stars [Parmenides, by Diog. Laertius]
He was the first person to say the earth is spherical [Parmenides, by Diog. Laertius]
Philolaus was the first person to say the earth moves in a circle [Philolaus, by Diog. Laertius]
There are unlimited worlds of varying sizes, some without life or water [Democritus, by Hippolytus]
If the Earth is spherical and in the centre, it is kept in place by universal symmetry, not by force [Plato]
Clearly the world is good, so its maker must have been concerned with the eternal, not with change [Plato]
The Earth must be spherical, because it casts a convex shadow on the moon [Aristotle]
The earth must be round and of limited size, because moving north or south makes different stars visible [Aristotle]
A cosmos is a collection of stars and an earth, with some sort of boundary, movement and shape [Epicurus]
Since the cosmos produces what is alive and rational, it too must be alive and rational [Zeno of Citium]
Things are more perfect if they have reason; nothing is more perfect than the universe, so it must have reason [Zeno of Citium]
This earth is very unlikely to be the only one created [Lucretius]
The 'universe' can mean what exists now, what always has or will exist [Russell]
Is the cosmos open or closed, mechanical or teleological, alive or inanimate, and created or eternal? [Robinson,TM, by PG]