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8. Modes of Existence / D. Universals / 2. Need for Universals

[things which only universals seem to explain]

22 ideas
If you deny that each thing always stays the same, you destroy the possibility of discussion [Plato]
You must always mean the same thing when you utter the same name [Plato]
It takes a person to understand, by using universals, and by using reason to create a unity out of sense-impressions [Plato]
The plurality of beautiful things must belong to a single class, because they have a single particular character [Plato]
The acquisition of scientific knowledge is impossible without universals [Aristotle]
Separate Forms aren't needed for logic, but universals (one holding of many) are essential [Aristotle]
Russell claims that universals are needed to explain a priori knowledge (as their relations) [Mellor/Oliver on Russell]
Every sentence contains at least one word denoting a universal, so we need universals to know truth [Russell]
Universals are acceptable if they are needed to make an accepted theory true [Jacquette on Quine]
The problem of universals is how many particulars can all be of the same 'type' [Armstrong]
Universals are required to give a satisfactory account of the laws of nature [Armstrong]
Universals explain resemblance and causal power [Armstrong]
Realist regularity theories of laws need universals, to pick out the same phenomena [Armstrong]
Universals concern how things are, and how they could be [Shoemaker]
We need universals for causation and laws of nature; the latter give them their identity [Mellor]
Universals are meant to give an account of resemblance [Lewis]
Universals explain one-over-many relations, and similar qualities, and similar behaviour [Heil]
Real universals are needed to explain laws of nature [Lowe]
Evidence for universals can be found in language, communication, natural laws, classification and ideals [Moreland]
The traditional problem of universals centres on the "One over Many", which is the unity of natural classes [Moreland]
Existence of universals may just be decided by acceptance, or not, of second-order logic [Maudlin]
Numerical sameness is explained by theories of identity, but what explains qualitative identity? [Macdonald]