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22. Metaethics / A. Ethical Ends / 2. Goodness / a. Goodness

[general ideas on the highest moral value]

28 ideas
Good and evil are the same thing [Heraclitus]
Things are both good and fine by the same standard [Xenophon on Socrates]
Only the Cyrenaics reject the idea of a final moral end [Annas on Aristippus elder]
Niceratus learnt the whole of Homer by heart, as a guide to goodness [Xenophon]
Some things are good even though they are not beneficial to men [Plato]
The good is 'that at which all things aim' [Aristotle]
Not all actions aim at some good; akratic actions, for example, do not [Burnyeat on Aristotle]
Goods are external, of the soul, and of the body; those of the soul (such as action) come first [Aristotle]
There is no universal goal to human life [Photius on Aenesidemus]
Good applies to goals, just as truth applies to ideas in the mind [Aquinas]
Hobbes shifted from talk of 'the good' to talk of 'rights' [Tuck on Hobbes]
Good and evil are what please us; goodness and badness the powers causing them [Hobbes]
Good or evil cannot be a thing, but only a maxim of action, making the person good or evil [Kant]
The concept of 'good' was created by aristocrats to describe their own actions [Nietzsche]
Originally it was the rulers who requited good for good and evil for evil who were called 'good' [Nietzsche]
Can learning to recognise a good friend help us to recognise a good watch? [MacIntyre on Moore,GE]
We should ask what we would judge to be good if it existed in absolute isolation [Moore,GE]
It is always an open question whether anything that is natural is good [Moore,GE]
The naturalistic fallacy claims that natural qualties can define 'good' [Moore,GE]
Goodness is a wider concept than just correct ethical conduct [Ross]
We can ask of pleasure or beauty whether they are valuable, but not of goodness [Ross]
An instrumentally good thing might stay the same, but change its value because of circumstances [Ross]
Motives decide whether an action is good, and what is done decides whether it was right [Ross]
The ground for an attitude is not a thing's 'goodness', but its concrete characteristics [Ewing]
Stoicism was an elitist option to lead a beautiful life [Foucault]
Why couldn't a person's life become a work of art? [Foucault]
Wittgenstein pared his life down in his search for decency [Monk]
Goodness is given either by a psychological state, or the attribution of a property [Korsgaard]